Remodeling of gap junctional channel function in epicardial border zone of healing canine infarcts.
ABSTRACT The epicardial border zone (EBZ) of canine infarcts has increased anisotropy because of transverse conduction slowing. It remains unknown whether changes in gap junctional conductance (Gj) accompany the increased anisotropy. Ventricular cell pairs were isolated from EBZ and normal hearts (NZ). Dual patch clamp was used to quantify Gj. At a transjunctional voltage (Vj) of +10 mV, side-to-side Gj of EBZ pairs (9.2+/-3.4 nS, n=16) was reduced compared with NZ side-to-side Gj (109.4+/-23.6 nS, n=14, P<0.001). Gj of end-to-end coupled cells was not reduced in EBZ. Steady-state Gj of both NZ and EBZ showed voltage dependence, described by a two-way Boltzmann function. Half-maximal activation voltage in EBZ was shifted to higher Vj in positive and negative directions. Immunoconfocal planimetry and quantification showed no change in connexin43 per unit cell volume or surface area in EBZ. Decreased side-to-side coupling occurs in EBZ myocytes, independent of reduced connexin43 expression, and is hypothesized to contribute to increased anisotropy and reentrant arrhythmias.
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ABSTRACT: The electrical properties of gap junctions in cell pairs are usually studied by means of the dual voltage clamp method. The voltage across the junctional channels, however, cannot be controlled adequately due to an artificial resistance and a natural resistance, both connected in series with the gap junction. The access resistances to the cell interior of the recording pipettes make up the artificial resistance. The natural resistance consists of the cytoplasmic access resistances to the tightly packed gap junction channels in both cells. A mathematical model was constructed to calculate the actual voltage across each gap junction channel. The stochastic open-close kinetics of the individual channels were incorporated into this model. It is concluded that even in the ideal case of complete compensation of pipette series resistance, the number of channels comprised in the gap junction may be largely underestimated. Furthermore, normalized steady-state junctional conductance may be largely overestimated, so that transjunctional voltage dependence is easily masked. The model is used to discuss conclusions drawn from dual voltage clamp experiments and offers alternative explanations for various experimental observations.Biophysical Journal 11/1992; 63(4):942-53. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adult ventricular myocytes express two gap junction channel proteins: connexin43 (Cx43) and connexin45 (Cx45). Cx43-deficient mice exhibit slow ventricular epicardial conduction, suggesting that Cx43 plays an important role in intercellular coupling in the ventricle. Cx45 is much less abundant than Cx43 in working ventricular myocytes. Its role in ventricular conduction has not been defined, nor is it known whether expression or distribution of Cx45 is altered in Cx43-deficient mice. The present study was undertaken to determine (1) whether expression of Cx45 is upregulated and (2) whether gap junction structure and distribution are altered in Cx43-deficient mice. Ventricular tissue from neonatal Cx43(+/+), Cx43(+/-) and Cx43(-/-) and adult Cx43(+/+) and Cx43(+/-) mice was analyzed by immunoblotting and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Total Cx45 protein abundance measured by immunoblotting was not different in Cx43-deficient or null hearts compared to wild-type control hearts. However, the amount and distribution of Cx45 immunoreactive signal measured by quantitative confocal analysis were markedly reduced in both Cx43(+/-) and Cx43(-/-) hearts. Although the total content of Cx45 is not upregulated in Cx43-deficient hearts, the localization of Cx45 to cardiac gap junctions depends on the expression level of Cx43 and is dramatically altered in mice that express no Cx43.Cardiovascular Research 04/2002; 53(4):921-35. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cell pairs were isolated from adult guinea pig ventricles to study the electrical properties of gap junction channels. The experiments involved a double voltage-clamp approach and whole-cell, tight-seal recording. Heptanol decreased the intracellular current, I n, in a dose-dependent fashion. Before complete uncoupling, I n showed fluctuations suggesting the operation of gated channels. In the presence of 3 mM heptanol, I n showed quantal steps arising from spontaneous opening and closing of single channels. The IV-relationship of the channels was linear (range: 95 mV). Analysis of current records revealed the following singlechannel conductances, n: Mean value = 37 pS; median value = 33 pS. n was insensitive to the non-junctional membrane potential (range: –90 to +10 mV). 3 mM ATP4– in the pipette solution had no effects on n, 6 mM ATP4– produced a small decrease, and 6 mM ATP+0.1 mM cAMP– an increase in n. Channel transitions from closed to open state were variable (range of apparent time constants: 2.5–32 ms; mean: 11 ms).Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 11/1990; 415(1):12-21. · 4.87 Impact Factor