Effect of selenite on the disposition of arsenate and arsenite in rats.
ABSTRACT Selenite (SeIV) and inorganic arsenicals counter the toxicity of each other. SeIV inhibits arsenic methylation in hepatocytes, however, it is unknown whether it decreases the formation of the highly toxic monomethylarsonous acid (MMAsIII). Therefore, we examined, in comparison with the methylation inhibitor periodate-oxidised adenosine (PAD), the effect of SeIV (10 micromol/kg, i.v.) on the appearance of arsenic metabolites in blood, bile and urine as well as the distribution of arsenic metabolites in the liver and kidneys in rats injected i.v. with 50 micromol/kg arsenite (AsIII) or arsenate (AsV). Arsenic metabolites were analysed by HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS). In rats given either arsenical, PAD decreased the excretion and tissue concentrations of methylated arsenic metabolites (MMAsIII, monomethylarsonic acid [MMAsV], and dimethylarsinic acid [DMAsV]), while increasing the tissue retention of AsV and AsIII. The effect of SeIV on arsenic disposition differed significantly from that of PAD. For example, both in AsIII- and AsV-injected animals, SeIV lowered the tissue levels of MMAsIII and MMAsV, but increased the levels of DMAsV. SeIV almost abolished the biliary excretion of MMAsIII in AsV-exposed rats, but barely influenced it in AsIII-dosed rats. The SeIV-induced changes in arsenic disposition may largely be ascribable to formation of the known complex containing trivalent arsenic and selenide (SeII), which not only depends on but also influences the availability and effects of these metalloid species in tissues. By such complexation SeII compromises monomethylation of arsenic when trivalent arsenic availability is limited (e.g. in AsV-exposed rats), but affects it less when the presence of AsIII is overwhelming (e.g. in AsIII-dosed rats). As an auxiliary finding, it is shown that DMAsV occurs in the blood of rats not injected with arsenic and that DMAsV formation in rats can be followed by measuring the build-up of blood-borne DMAsV.
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ABSTRACT: Synergistic and antagonistic relation between As and Se toxicity in humans.Environment International 08/2014; 69:148–158. · 5.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Arsenic, which causes human carcinogenicity, is ubiquitous in the environment. This study was designed to evaluate modulation of arsenic induced cancer by resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in vegetal dietary sources that has antioxidant and chemopreventive properties, in arsenic trioxide (As2O3)-induced Male Wistar rats. Adult rats received 3 mg/kg As2O3 (intravenous injection, iv.) on alternate days for 4 days. Resveratrol (8 mg/kg) was administered (iv.) 1 h before As2O3 treatment. The plasma and homogenization enzymes associated with oxidative stress of rat kidneys were measured, the kidneys were examined histologically and trace element contents were assessed. Rats treated with As2O3 had significantly higher oxidative stress and kidney arsenic accumulation; however, pretreatment with resveratrol reversed these changes. In addition, prior to treatment with resveratrol resulted in lower blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and insignificant renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis. Furthermore, the presence of resveratrol preserved the selenium content (0.805 ± 0.059 µg/g) of kidneys in rats treated with As2O3. However, resveratrol had no effect on zinc level in the kidney relative to As2O3-treated groups. Our data show that supplementation with resveratrol alleviated nephrotoxicity by improving antioxidant capacity and arsenic efflux. These findings suggest that resveratrol has the potential to protect against kidney damage in populations exposed to arsenic.Nutrition research and practice 04/2014; 8(2):220-6. · 1.13 Impact Factor