Sporotomaculum syntrophicum sp. nov., a novel anaerobic, syntrophic benzoate-degrading bacterium isolated from methanogenic sludge treating wastewater from terephthalate manufacturing.
ABSTRACT An anaerobic, mesophilic, syntrophic benzoate-degrading bacterium, designated strain FB(T), was isolated from methanogenic sludge which had been used to treat wastewater from the manufacture of terephthalic acid. Cells were non-motile gram-positive rods that formed spores. The optimum temperature for growth was 35-40 degrees C, and the optimum pH was 7.0-7.2. A co-culture with the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanospirillum hungatei converted benzoate to acetate, carbon dioxide, and methane. Butyrate transiently accumulated at a high concentration of 2.5 mM during degradation. Besides benzoate, no other compound tested supported growth of the co-culture. Crotonate supported growth of strain FB(T) in pure culture. Furthermore, the strain degraded benzoate in pure culture with crotonate as co-substrate to produce acetate and butyrate. The strain was not able to utilize sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, nitrate, fumarate, or Fe(III) as electron acceptor. The G+C content of the DNA was 46.8 mol%. Strain FB(T) contained MK-7 as the major quinone and C(16:1) as the major fatty acid. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that the strain was a member of the genus Sporotomaculum, even though it exhibited significant differences, such as the capacity for syntrophic growth, to the known member of the genus. Hence, we propose the name Sporotomaculum syntrophicum sp. nov. for strain FB(T). The type strain is strain FB(T) (DSM 14795, JCM 11475).
Article: Identification and isolation of anaerobic, syntrophic phthalate isomer-degrading microbes from methanogenic sludges treating wastewater from terephthalate manufacturing.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The microbial populations responsible for anaerobic degradation of phthalate isomers were investigated by enrichment and isolation of those microbes from anaerobic sludge treating wastewater from the manufacturing of terephthalic acid. Primary enrichments were made with each of three phthalate isomers (ortho-, iso-, and terephthalate) as the sole energy source at 37 degrees C with two sources of anaerobic sludge (both had been used to treat wastewater containing high concentrations of phthalate isomers) as the inoculum. Six methanogenic enrichment cultures were obtained which not only degraded the isomer used for the enrichment but also had the potential to degrade part of other phthalate isomers as well as benzoate with concomitant production of methane, presumably involving strictly syntrophic substrate degradation. Our 16S rRNA gene-cloning analysis combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the predominant bacteria in the enrichment cultures were affiliated with a recently recognized non-sulfate-reducing subcluster (subcluster Ih) in the group 'Desulfotomaculum lineage I' or a clone cluster (group TA) in the class delta-PROTEOBACTERIA: Several attempts were made to isolate these microbes, resulting in the isolation of a terephthalate-degrading bacterium, designated strain JT, in pure culture. A coculture of the strain with the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanospirillum hungatei converted terephthalate to acetate and methane within 3 months of incubation, whereas strain JT could not degrade terephthalate in pure culture. During the degradation of terephthalate, a small amount of benzoate was transiently accumulated as an intermediate, indicative of decarboxylation of terephthalate to benzoate as the initial step of the degradation. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain was a member of subcluster Ih of the group 'Desulfotomaculum lineage I', but it was only distantly related to other known species.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 04/2004; 70(3):1617-26. · 3.83 Impact Factor