Expression and functional characterization of the adhesion molecule spermatogenic immunoglobulin superfamily in the mouse testis.
ABSTRACT Spermatogenic immunoglobulin superfamily (SgIGSF) is a mouse protein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed in the spermatogenic cells of seminiferous tubules. We produced a specific polyclonal antibody against SgIGSF. Western blot analysis of the testes from postnatal developing mice using this antibody demonstrated multiple immunopositive bands of 80-130 kDa, which increased in number and size with the postnatal age. Enzymatic N-glycolysis caused reduction in the size of these bands to 70 kDa, indicating that SgIGSF is a glycoprotein and its glycosylation pattern and extent are developmentally regulated. Immunohistochemical analysis of the adult testis demonstrated that SgIGSF was present in the spermatogenic cells in the earlier steps of spermatogenesis and increased in amount from intermediate spermatogonia through zygotene spermatocytes but was diminished in the steps from early pachytene spermatocytes through round spermatids. After meiosis, SgIGSF reappeared in step 7 spermatids and was present in the elongating spermatids until spermiation. The immunoreactivity was localized primarily on the cell membrane. Consistent with the findings in adult testes, the analysis of the developing testes revealed that SgIGSF was expressed separately in the spermatogenic cells in earlier and later phases. Sertoli cells had no expression of SgIGSF, whereas both SgIGSF immunoprecipitated from the testis lysate and produced in COS-7 cells was shown to bind to the surface of Sertoli cells in primary culture. These results suggested that SgIGSF on the surface of spermatogenic cells binds to some membrane molecules on Sertoli cells in a heterophilic manner and thereby may play diverse roles in the spermatogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein expressed in various tissues. CADM1 is a cell adhesion molecule with many functions, including roles in tumor suppression, apoptosis, mast cell survival, synapse formation, and spermatogenesis. CADM1 undergoes membrane-proximal cleavage called shedding, but the sheddase and mechanisms of CADM1 proteolysis have not been reported. We determined the cleavage site involved in CADM1 shedding by LC/MS/MS and showed that CADM1 shedding occurred in the membrane fraction and was inhibited by tumor necrosis factor-α protease inhibitor-1 (TAPI-1). An siRNA experiment revealed that ADAM10 mediates endogenous CADM1 shedding. In addition, the membrane-bound fragment generated by shedding was further cleaved by γ-secretase and generated CADM1-intracellular domain (ICD) in a mechanism called regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). These results clarify the detailed mechanism of membrane-proximal cleavage of CADM1, suggesting the possibility of RIP-mediated CADM1 signaling.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2011; 417(1):462-7. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.11.140 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is a putative tumour suppressor gene, which is downregulated in many solid tumours. In neuroblastoma, loss of CADM1 expression has recently been found in disseminated tumours with adverse outcome, prompting us to investigate its role in neuroblastoma tumour progression. Oligonucleotide-microarray analysis of 251 neuroblastoma specimens demonstrated that CADM1 downregulation is associated with unfavourable prognostic markers like disseminated stage 4, age >18 months, MYCN amplification and chromosome 11q alterations (P<0.001 each). Furthermore, low CADM1 expression was significantly correlated with unfavourable gene expression-based classification (P<0.001) and adverse patient outcome (P<0.001). Bisulphite sequencing and genetic analysis of 18 primary neuroblastomas suggested that neither haploinsufficiency nor hypermethylation is regularly involved in CADM1 gene silencing in neuroblastoma, which is in contrast to results obtained in other malignancies. In addition, no mutations disrupting the CADM1 reading frame were found in 25 primary neuroblastomas. Over-expression of CADM1 in neuroblastoma cells resulted in significant reduction of proliferation, viability and colony formation in soft agar. Collectively, our results suggest that downregulation of CADM1 tumour suppressor gene expression is a critical event in neuroblastoma pathogenesis resulting in tumour progression and unfavourable patient outcome.Oncogene 05/2008; 27(23):3329-38. DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1210996 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During spermatogenesis, preleptotene spermatocytes traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in the seminiferous epithelium, which is reminiscent of viral pathogens breaking through the tight junctions of host epithelial cells. The process also closely resembles the migration of leukocytes across endothelial tight junctions to reach inflammation sites. Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily (e.g., JAM/CAR/nectin) participate in germ cell migration by conferring transient adhesion between Sertoli and germ cells through homophilic and heterophilic interactions. The same molecules also comprise the junctional complexes at the BTB. Interestingly, JAM/CAR/nectin molecules mediate virus uptake and leukocyte transmigration in strikingly similar manners. It is likely that the strategy used by viruses and leukocytes to break through junctional barriers is used by germ cells to open up the inter-Sertoli cell junctions. In associating these diverse cellular events, we highlight the "guiding" role of JAM/CAR/nectin molecules for germ cell passage. Knowledge on viral invasion and leukocyte transmigration has also shed insights into germ cell movement during spermatogenesis.The Journal of Cell Biology 09/2007; 178(4):549-56. DOI:10.1083/jcb.200704061 · 9.69 Impact Factor