Inflammatory Cytokines and the Risk to Develop Type 2 Diabetes Results of the Prospective Population-Based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study
ABSTRACT A subclinical inflammatory reaction has been shown to precede the onset of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. We therefore examined prospectively the effects of the central inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on the development of type 2 diabetes. We designed a nested case-control study within the prospective population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study including 27,548 individuals. Case subjects were defined to be those who were free of type 2 diabetes at baseline and subsequently developed type 2 diabetes during a 2.3-year follow-up period. A total of 192 cases of incident type 2 diabetes were identified and matched with 384 non-disease-developing control subjects. IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels were found to be elevated in participants with incident type 2 diabetes, whereas IL-1beta plasma levels did not differ between the groups. Analysis of single cytokines revealed IL-6 as an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), sports, smoking status, educational attainment, alcohol consumption, and HbA(1c) (4th vs. the 1st quartile: odds ratio [OR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.5). The association between TNF-alpha and future type 2 diabetes was no longer significant after adjustment for BMI or WHR. Interestingly, combined analysis of the cytokines revealed a significant interaction between IL-1beta and IL-6. In the fully adjusted model, participants with detectable levels of IL-1beta and elevated levels of IL-6 had an independently increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes (3.3, 1.7-6.8), whereas individuals with increased concentrations of IL-6 but undetectable levels of IL-1beta had no significantly increased risk, both compared with the low-level reference group. These results were confirmed in an analysis including only individuals with HbA(1c) <5.8% at baseline. Our data suggest that the pattern of circulating inflammatory cytokines modifies the risk for type 2 diabetes. In particular, a combined elevation of IL-1beta and IL-6, rather than the isolated elevation of IL-6 alone, independently increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. These data strongly support the hypothesis that a subclinical inflammatory reaction has a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: The expression of plasma proteins changes dramatically as a result of cytokine induction, particularly interleukin-6, and their levels are used as clinical markers of inflammation. miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression and play significant roles in many inflammatory diseases and processes. The interactions between miRNAs and the genes that they regulate during the acute phase response have not been investigated. We examined the effects of IL-6 stimulation on the transcriptome and miRNome of human and mouse primary hepatocytes and the HepG2 cell line. Using an integrated analysis, we identified differentially expressed miRNAs whose seed sequences are significantly enriched in the 3' untranslated regions of differentially expressed genes, many of which are involved in inflammation-related pathways. Our finding that certain miRNAs may de-repress critical acute phase proteins within acute timeframes has important biological and clinical implications. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Genomics 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ygeno.2015.05.001 · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Low-grade inflammation is an established pathological condition that contributes to the development of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic inflammation is dependent on multiple signalling events. In an overnutrition state, canonical inflammatory pathways are induced by inflammatory cytokines and lipid species. They can also be triggered through inflammasome activation as well as through cellular stress provoked by the unfolded protein response at the endoplasmic reticulum as well as by reactive oxygen species. In this chapter, we summarize the current knowledge about signalling events within the cell and describe how they impact on metabolic inflammation and whole-body metabolism. We particularly highlight the interplay between different signalling pathways that link low-grade inflammation responses to the inactivation of the insulin receptor pathway, ultimately leading to insulin resistance, a hallmark of type 2 diabetes.Handbook of experimental pharmacology 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/164_2015_4
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ABSTRACT: The use of antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of mood disorders and psychosis has increased dramatically over the last decade. Despite its consumption being associated with beneficial neuropsychiatric effects in patients, atypical antipsychotics (which are the most frequently prescribed antipsychotics) use is accompanied by some secondary adverse metabolic effects such as weight gain, dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance. The molecular mechanisms underlying these adverse effects are not fully understood but have been suggested to involve a dysregulation of adipose tissue homeostasis. As such, the aim of this paper is to review and discuss the role of adipose tissue in the development of secondary adverse metabolic effects induced by atypical antipsychotics. Data analyzed in this article suggest that atypical antipsychotics may increase adipose tissue (particularly visceral adipose tissue) lipogenesis, differentiation/hyperplasia, pro-inflammatory mediator secretion and insulin resistance and decrease adipose tissue lipolysis. Consequently, patients receiving antipsychotic medication could be at risk of developing obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A better knowledge of the impact of these drugs on adipose tissue homeostasis may unveil strategies to develop novel antipsychotic drugs with less adverse metabolic effects and to develop adjuvant therapies (e.g. behavioral and nutritional therapies) to neuropsychiatric patients receiving antipsychotic medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 12/2014; 25(1). DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.11.008 · 5.40 Impact Factor