Intravenous use of prescribed sublingual buprenorphine tablets by drug users receiving maintenance therapy in France.
ABSTRACT In 1996, sublingual buprenorphine was authorized for prescription in France for maintenance therapy (MT). MT should facilitate the rehabilitation of opioid-dependent drug users and reduce the risks associated with injection. However, misuse and side effects have been reported.
To assess the frequency of buprenorphine injection in 404 subjects on buprenorphine MT and to determine the factors associated with the injection of buprenorphine.
A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from subjects on buprenorphine MT seeking treatment from health care networks, specialized structures, a prison and a hostel in three different regions of France (1998-1999). Information was collected by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire.
About half (46.5%) of the subjects on MT (188/404) had ever injected buprenorphine; 67.2% of this subgroup had since used both injected and sublingual buprenorphine. Variables associated with buprenorphine injection were having injected a substance other than buprenorphine (odds ratio (OR): 13.18; 95% CI: 5.36-32.42), cannabis use (OR: 2.34; 95% CI: 1.51-3.63) and having a source of income other than a salary (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.02-2.45) and heroin use (OR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.09-0.61).
To decrease buprenorphine injection, prescribers of buprenorphine should participate in networks with specialized centers, and social and professional rehabilitation programs should be implemented for subjects on buprenorphine MT.
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ABSTRACT: Outpatient opioid addiction treatment with sublingual buprenorphine pharmacotherapy has rapidly expanded in the United States and abroad, and, with this increase in medication availability, there have been increasing concerns about its diversion, misuse, and related harms. This narrative review defines the behaviors of diversion and misuse, examines how the pharmacology of buprenorphine alone and in combination with naloxone influence its abuse liability, and describes the epidemiological data on buprenorphine diversion and intravenous misuse, risk factors for its intravenous misuse, and the unintended consequences of misuse and diversion. Physician practices to prevent, screen for, and therapeutically respond to these behaviors, which are a form of medication nonadherence, are discussed, and gaps in knowledge are identified. Outpatient opioid addiction treatment with sublingual buprenorphine pharmacotherapy experiences from other countries that have varied health care systems, public policies, and access to addiction treatment are shared to make clear that diversion and misuse occur across the world in various contexts, for many different reasons, and are not limited to buprenorphine. Comparisons are made with other opioids with known abuse liability and medications with no known abuse. The objective was to facilitate understanding of diversion and misuse so that all factors influencing their expression (patient and provider characteristics and public policy) can be appreciated within a framework that also recognizes the benefits of addiction treatment. With this comprehensive perspective, further careful work can help determine how to minimize these behaviors without eroding the current benefits realized through improved addiction treatment access and expansion.Journal of Addiction Medicine 09/2014; 8(5). DOI:10.1097/ADM.0000000000000045 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Project Access France was a national survey designed to provide real-world observations on the status of opioid dependence treatment in France.International Journal of General Medicine 01/2014; 7:449-57. DOI:10.2147/IJGM.S61014