Article

Intravenous use of prescribed sublingual buprenorphine tablets by drug users receiving maintenance therapy in France.

Département de Santé Publique and service de Santé publique, AP-HP, CHU Cochin-Port Royal, Université René Descartes, Paris, France.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence (Impact Factor: 3.28). 04/2003; 69(2):175-81. DOI: 10.1016/S0376-8716(02)00312-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In 1996, sublingual buprenorphine was authorized for prescription in France for maintenance therapy (MT). MT should facilitate the rehabilitation of opioid-dependent drug users and reduce the risks associated with injection. However, misuse and side effects have been reported.
To assess the frequency of buprenorphine injection in 404 subjects on buprenorphine MT and to determine the factors associated with the injection of buprenorphine.
A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from subjects on buprenorphine MT seeking treatment from health care networks, specialized structures, a prison and a hostel in three different regions of France (1998-1999). Information was collected by trained interviewers using a structured questionnaire.
About half (46.5%) of the subjects on MT (188/404) had ever injected buprenorphine; 67.2% of this subgroup had since used both injected and sublingual buprenorphine. Variables associated with buprenorphine injection were having injected a substance other than buprenorphine (odds ratio (OR): 13.18; 95% CI: 5.36-32.42), cannabis use (OR: 2.34; 95% CI: 1.51-3.63) and having a source of income other than a salary (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.02-2.45) and heroin use (OR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.09-0.61).
To decrease buprenorphine injection, prescribers of buprenorphine should participate in networks with specialized centers, and social and professional rehabilitation programs should be implemented for subjects on buprenorphine MT.

0 Followers
 · 
74 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In spite of the clinical utility of buprenorphine, parenteral abuse of this medication has been reported in several laboratory investigations and in the real world. Studies have demonstrated lower abuse liability of the buprenorphine/naloxone combination relative to buprenorphine alone. However, clinical research has not yet examined the utility of the combined formulation to deter intranasal use in a buprenorphine-maintained population. Heroin-using volunteers (n = 12) lived in the hospital for 8–9 weeks and were maintained on each of three sublingual buprenorphine doses (2, 8, 24 mg). Under each maintenance dose, participants completed laboratory sessions during which the reinforcing and subjective effects of intranasal doses of buprenorphine (8, 16 mg), buprenorphine/naloxone (8/2, 8/8, 8/16, 16/4 mg) and controls (placebo, heroin 100 mg, naloxone 4 mg) were assessed. Intranasal buprenorphine alone typically produced increases in positive subjective effects and the 8 mg dose was self-administered above the level of placebo. The addition of naloxone dose dependently reduced positive subjective effects and increased aversive effects. No buprenorphine/naloxone combination dose was self-administered significantly more than placebo. These data suggest that within a buprenorphine-dependent population, intranasal buprenorphine/naloxone has reduced abuse potential in comparison to buprenorphine alone. These data strongly argue in favor of buprenorphine/naloxone rather than buprenorphine alone as the more reasonable option for managing the risk of buprenorphine misuse.
    Addiction Biology 08/2014; 20(4). DOI:10.1111/adb.12163 · 5.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence about illicit use of buprenorphine in the U.S. The study aims to: (1) identify prevalence and predictors of illicit buprenorphine use in a community sample of 396 young adult (18-23 years old) non-medical users of pharmaceutical opioids and (2) describe knowledge, attitudes and behaviors linked to illicit buprenorphine use as reported by a qualitative sub-sample (n=51). Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Qualitative interview participants were selected from the larger sample. The sample (n=396) was 54% male and 50% white; 7.8% reported lifetime illicit use of buprenorphine. Logistic regression analysis results indicate that white ethnicity, intranasal inhalation of pharmaceutical opioids, symptoms of opioid dependence, and a greater number of pharmaceutical opioids used in lifetime were statistically significant predictors of illicit buprenorphine use. Qualitative interviews revealed that buprenorphine was more commonly used by more experienced users who were introduced to it by their "junkie friends." Those who used buprenorphine to self-medicate withdrawal referred to it as a "miracle pill." When used to get high, reported experiences ranged from "the best high ever" to "puking for days." Participants reported using buprenorphine/naloxone orally or by intranasal inhalation. Injection of buprenorphine without naloxone was also reported. Our findings suggest that illicit buprenorphine use is gaining ground primarily among whites and those who are more advanced in their drug use careers. Continued monitoring is needed to better understand evolving patterns and trends of illicit buprenorphine use.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 10/2011; 122(3):201-7. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.09.029 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Though the introduction of office-based buprenorphine has greatly contributed to stem the HIV epidemic since 1995, concerns have been raised about the intravenous use of buprenorphine even in patients on substitution treatment. The aim of this study was to identify which factors are predictive of buprenorphine injection in patients receiving office-based buprenorphine. Subazur is a survey consisting of two longitudinal assessments of 111 stabilized patients receiving office-based buprenorphine in southeastern France. Patients were interviewed by phone at enrolment and 6 months later about social characteristics, addictive behaviors, treatment experiences, overdoses and suicide ideation or attempt. A logistic regression based on generalized estimating equations (GEE) was used to identify factors associated with buprenorphine injection at any interview. Among the 111 patients (32% women, mean age 38 years), 36 reported buprenorphine injection after having started treatment initiation in 40 interviews. After adjustment for time since first injection, individuals perceiving their prescribed dosage as inadequate (OR=2.6 95%CI[1.2-5.7]) and those reporting a history of suicide ideation or attempt (OR=2.7 95%CI[1.1-7.0]) had approximately a three-fold higher risk of injecting buprenorphine. Providing adequate care for both drug dependence and psychiatric comorbidities in primary care is a major issue. Like heroin use during methadone treatment, buprenorphine injection should be regarded more as a response to inadequate care than simply as a "misuse". A re-assessment of the treatment efficacy through a possible dosage increase or a switch to methadone could potentially reduce diversion and assure sustained adherence to OST.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 10/2008; 97(1-2):105-13. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.03.025 · 3.28 Impact Factor