Structural and transcriptional analysis of the self-incompatibility locus of almond: identification of a pollen-expressed F-box gene with haplotype-specific polymorphism.

Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.
The Plant Cell (Impact Factor: 9.25). 04/2003; 15(3):771-81. DOI: 10.1105/tpc.009290
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Gametophytic self-incompatibility in Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Scrophulariaceae is controlled by the S locus, which consists of an S-RNase gene and an unidentified "pollen S" gene. An approximately 70-kb segment of the S locus of the rosaceous species almond, the S haplotype-specific region containing the S-RNase gene, was sequenced completely. This region was found to contain two pollen-expressed F-box genes that are likely candidates for pollen S genes. One of them, named SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein), was expressed specifically in pollen and showed a high level of S haplotype-specific sequence polymorphism, comparable to that of the S-RNases. The other is unlikely to determine the S specificity of pollen because it showed little allelic sequence polymorphism and was expressed also in pistil. Three other S haplotypes were cloned, and the pollen-expressed genes were physically mapped. In all four cases, SFBs were linked physically to the S-RNase genes and were located at the S haplotype-specific region, where recombination is believed to be suppressed, suggesting that the two genes are inherited as a unit. These features are consistent with the hypothesis that SFB is the pollen S gene. This hypothesis predicts the involvement of the ubiquitin/26S proteasome proteolytic pathway in the RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility system.

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    ABSTRACT: Many flowering plants adopt self-incompatibility (SI) to maintain their genetic diversity. In species of Solanaceae, Plantaginaceae, and Rosaceae, SI is genetically controlled by a single S-locus with multiple haplotypes. The S-locus has been shown to encode S-RNases expressed in pistil and multiple SLF (S-locus F-box) proteins in pollen controlling the female and male specificity of SI, respectively. S-RNases appear to function as a cytotoxin to reject self-pollen. In addition, SLFs have been shown to form SCF (SKP1/Cullin1/F-box) complexes to serve as putative E3 ubiquitin ligase to interact with S-RNases. Previously, two different mechanisms, the S-RNase degradation and the S-RNase compartmentalization, have been proposed as the restriction mechanisms of S-RNase cytotoxicity allowing compatible pollination. In this study, we have provided several lines of evidence in support of the S-RNase degradation mechanism by a combination of cellular, biochemical and molecular biology approaches. First, both immunogold labeling and subcellular fractionation assays showed that two key pollen SI factors, PhS3L-SLF1 and PhSSK1 (SLF-interacting SKP1-like1) from Petunia hybrida, a Solanaceous species, are co-localized in cytosols of both pollen grains and tubes. Second, PhS3L-RNases are mainly detected in the cytosols of both self and non-self-pollen tubes after pollination. Third, we found that PhS-RNases selectively interact with PhSLFs by yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Fourth, S-RNases are specifically degraded in compatible pollen tubes by non-self SLF action. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SCF(SLF-mediated) non-self S-RNase degradation occurs in the cytosol of pollen tube through the ubiquitin/26S proteasome system serving as the major mechanism to neutralize S-RNase cytotoxicity during compatible pollination in P. hybrida.
    Frontiers in Genetics 01/2014; 5:228.
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    ABSTRACT: Many plants have a self-incompatibility (SI) system in which the rejection of self-pollen is determined by multiple haplotypes at a single locus, termed S. In the Solanaceae, each haplotype encodes a single ribonuclease (S-RNase) and multiple S-locus F-box proteins (SLFs), which function as the pistil and pollen SI determinants, respectively. S-RNase is cytotoxic to self-pollen, whereas SLFs are thought to collaboratively recognize non-self S-RNases in cross-pollen and detoxify them via the ubiquitination pathway. However, the actual detoxification mechanism remains unknown. Here we isolate the components of an SCF(SLF) from Petunia pollen. The SCF(SLF) poly-ubiquitinates a subset of non-self S-RNases in vitro. The poly-ubiquitinated S-RNases are degraded in the pollen extract, which is attenuated by a proteasome inhibitor. Our findings suggest that multiple SCF(SLF) complexes in cross-pollen poly-ubiquitinate non-self S-RNases, resulting in their degradation by the proteasome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    The Plant Journal 04/2014; · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Self-compatible mutants of self-incompatible crops have been extensively studied for research and agricultural purposes. Until now, the only known pollen-part self-compatible mutants in Rosaceae subtribe Pyrinae, which contains many important fruit trees, were polyploid. This study revealed that the pollen-part self-compatibility of breeding selection 415-1, a recently discovered mutant of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) derived from γ-irradiated pollen, is caused by a duplication of an S-haplotype. In the progeny of 415-1, some plants had three S-haplotypes, two of which were from the pollen parent. Thus, 415-1 was able to produce pollen with two S-haplotypes, even though it was found to be diploid: the relative nuclear DNA content measured by flow cytometry showed no significant difference from that of a diploid cultivar. Inheritance patterns of simple sequence repeat (SSR) alleles in the same linkage group as the S-locus (LG 17) showed that some SSRs closely linked to S-haplotypes were duplicated in progeny containing the duplicated S-haplotype. These results indicate that the pollen-part self-compatibility of 415-1 is not caused by a mutation of pollen S factors in either one of the S-haplotypes, but by a segmental duplication encompassing the S-haplotype. Consequently, 415-1 can produce S-heteroallelic pollen grains that are capable of breaking down self-incompatibility (SI) by competitive interaction between the two different S factors in the pollen grain. 415-1 is the first diploid pollen-part self-compatible mutant with a duplicated S-haplotype to be discovered in the Pyrinae. The fact that 415-1 is not polyploid makes it particularly valuable for further studies of SI mechanisms.
    Molecular Breeding 01/2014; 33:117-128. · 3.25 Impact Factor


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