A telephone-delivered intervention to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients.
ABSTRACT This study was performed to investigate the effect of a telephone-delivered intervention on glycemic control and body mass index in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. 38 patients were randomly selected, with 20 assigned to a telephone group and 18 to a control group. The goal of the intervention was to keep blood glucose concentrations close to the normal range. The intervention was applied to the telephone group for 12 weeks. It consisted of continuous education and reinforcement of diet, exercise and medication adjustment, as well as frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose levels. Telephone intervention was performed twice per week for the first month, and then weekly for the second and third months. Subjects were requested to write self- management logs, including blood glucose, diet and an exercise diary. The diet diaries were analyzed by a dietitian, and subjects instructed about the results by telephone counseling or mail. All medication adjustments were communicated to the subjects' diabetes specialist. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG) and 2-hour postprandial glucose were measured before, and after, the intervention. Patients in the telephone group had a mean decrease of 1.2%, with those in the control group having a mean increase of 0.6%, in HbA1c. There were no significant differences in the body mass index (BMI) between the two groups. These findings indicated that a telephone-delivered intervention would improve HbA1c, but would not affect BMI.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) can suffer from poor metabolic parameters through lack of adherence to requisite lifestyle changes in dietary and physical activity. Usually, interventions in MetS patients are infrequent face-to-face consultations. The low frequency or absence of counseling interviews leads to a shortage of information and motivation to adhere to the recommended lifestyle changes. Telephone interventions could be an additional low-cost tool for effective interventions. To evaluate the effectiveness of telephone intervention in improving lifestyle habits and metabolic parameters in MetS patients compared with similar face-to-face or a usual care interventions. Eighty-seven MetS patients recruited from the outpatient clinic of a major public hospital were randomly assigned to one of the three intervention groups: "usual care", "telephone" or "face-to-face". At the beginning of the study, all patients were provided with a hypocaloric Mediterranean-type diet. Afterwards, patients in the telephone group received 7 dietary counseling calls, patients in the face-to-face group participated in 7 one-to-one dietary counseling sessions, while patients in the usual care group received no other contact until the end of the study, 6 months later. All patients underwent full medical and nutritional evaluation at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. At the end of the intervention, 42% of the participants no longer showed symptoms of MetS; the reduction rates differed significantly between the groups (p = 0.024), with those in the face-to-face and telephone group exhibiting similar rates (52% and 54%, respectively, vs. 21% in the usual care group). Between-group analysis revealed that the face-to-face group achieved the greatest improvement in metabolic parameters, while the telephone group had the greatest improvement in dietary adherence compared with the usual care group. Telephone counseling is an effective way to implement behavioral counseling to improve lifestyle habits in MetS patients.The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2012; 9(1):36-45.
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ABSTRACT: We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess the effectiveness of disease-management programs for improving glycemic control in adults with diabetes mellitus and to study which components of programs are associated with their effectiveness. We searched several databases for studies published up to December 2009. We included randomized controlled trials involving adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes that evaluated the effect of disease-management programs on glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A₁(C)) concentrations. We performed a meta-regression analysis to determine the effective components of the programs. We included 41 randomized controlled trials in our review. Across these trials, disease-management programs resulted in a significant reduction in hemoglobin A₁(C) levels (pooled standardized mean difference between intervention and control groups -0.38 [95% confidence interval -0.47 to -0.29], which corresponds to an absolute mean difference of 0.51%). The finding was robust in the sensitivity analyses based on quality assessment. Programs in which the disease manager was able to start or modify treatment with or without prior approval from the primary care physician resulted in a greater improvement in hemoglobin A₁(C) levels (standardized mean difference -0.60 v. -0.28 in trials with no approval to do so; p < 0.001). Programs with a moderate or high frequency of contact reported a significant reduction in hemoglobin A₁(C) levels compared with usual care; nevertheless, only programs with a high frequency of contact led to a significantly greater reduction compared with low-frequency contact programs (standardized mean difference -0.56 v. -0.30, p = 0.03). Disease-management programs had a clinically moderate but significant impact on hemoglobin A₁(C) levels among adults with diabetes. Effective components of programs were a high frequency of patient contact and the ability for disease managers to adjust treatment with or without prior physician approval.Canadian Medical Association Journal 02/2011; 183(2):E115-27. · 6.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes self-management education has an important role in diabetes management. The efficacy of education has been proven in several randomized trials. However, the status of diabetes education programs in real Korean clinical practice has not yet been evaluated in terms of patient compliance with the education prescription. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and laboratory data from all patients who were ordered to undergo diabetes education during 2009 at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea (n=2,291). After excluding ineligible subjects, 588 patients were included in the analysis. Among the 588 patients, 433 received education. The overall compliance rate was 73.6%, which was significantly higher in the subjects with a short duration or living in a rural area compared to those with a long duration (85.0% vs. 65.1%, respectively; P<0.001) or living in an urban area (78.2% vs. 70.4%, respectively; P=0.037). The hemoglobin A1c decreased greater in the compliant group (from 7.84±1.54 at baseline to 6.79±1.06 at 3 months and 6.97±1.20 at 12 months after prescription in the compliant group vs. from 7.74±1.25 to 7.14±1.02 and 7.24±1.24 in the non-compliant group; P=0.001). The decrease in hemoglobin A1c was greater in the subjects with a short duration (P=0.032). In our study a large percent of patients refuse to get education despite having a prescription from their physician. This refusal rate was higher in the patients with long-standing diabetes or in urban residence. Furthermore, education was more effective in patients with a short duration of diabetes in clinical practice.Diabetes & metabolism journal 12/2012; 36(6):452-9.