Prevalence of antibodies to selected viruses in a long-term closed breeding colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in Brazil

Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Centro de Criação de Animais de Loboratório, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
American Journal of Primatology (Impact Factor: 2.14). 03/2003; 59(3):123-8. DOI: 10.1002/ajp.10069
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The rhesus macaque breeding colony of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ) was established in 1932 from a founding stock of 100 animals. This population has remained closed to new animal introductions for almost 70 years. A serologic survey was performed to determine the prevalence of antibodies to selected viruses as a first approach to identifying viral pathogens endemic in this population. Banked serum samples were tested for antibodies to simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), simian T-lymphotropic virus (STLV), simian type D retrovirus (SRV), cercopithecine herpesvirus type-1 (B virus), rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV), measles virus (MV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). All samples were negative for antibodies against the simian retroviruses. The overall prevalence of antibodies was 95% for RhCMV, 45% for B virus, 35% for HAV, and 1% for MV. Prevalence was found to vary by age group.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV), the nonhuman primate counterparts of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV), are endemic in many populations of African and Asian monkeys and apes. Although an etiologic link between STLV1 infection and lymphoproliferative disorders such as malignant lymphomas has been suggested in some nonhuman primate species, most STLV infections are inapparent, and infected animals remain clinically healthy. The retroviral transactivator, tax, is well known to increase transcription of viral and cellular genes, resulting in altered cytokine profiles. This study compared the cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from 25 STLV1-seropositive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with those of age- and sex-matched seronegative controls. IFNγ, TNFα, IL10, and IL2 levels in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants were measured at 24, 48, and 72 h by using enzyme immunoassays. IFNγ concentrations were found significantly higher in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of seropositive monkeys as compared with seronegative controls. In addition, although IL2 concentrations were not significantly elevated in the supernatants of PBMC cultures of all seropositive monkeys as compared with all seronegative controls, IL2 levels were increased in a subset of 5 pairs. Increased constitutive cytokine release occurred in the absence of spontaneous proliferation. The increased constitutive release of IFNγ and IL2 suggests that STLV1 alters immune functions in infected but clinically healthy rhesus macaques and further characterizes STLV1 infection of rhesus macaques as a potential model for human HTLV1 infection.
    Comparative medicine 01/2013; 63(6):508-14. · 0.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) 68-1 is the prototypic strain of RhCMV that has been used for pathogenesis and vaccine development. We determined the complete sequence of the RhCMV 68-1 UL/b' region directly from the original urine from which RhCMV 68-1 was isolated in 1968, and compared it to other RhCMVs. The laboratory passaged RhCMV 68-1 has inversions, deletions, and stop codons in UL/b' that are absent in the original isolate and other low passage RhCMV isolates. Fourteen of the 17 open reading frames (ORFs) in 68-1 UL/b' in the original isolate share >95% amino acid identity with low passage RhCMV. The original isolate retains 6 ORFs that encode α-chemokine-like proteins, including RhUL146 and RhUL146b that share only 92% and 81% amino acid identity, respectively, with a contemporary low passage RhCMV isolate. Identification of the original RhCMV 68-1 UL/b' sequence is important for using RhCMV 68-1 in pathogenesis and vaccine studies.
    Virology 12/2013; 447(1-2):208-12. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2013.08.026 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The natural history of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is inextricably associated with mucosal surfaces. The vast preponderance of primary infections occur following mucosal exposure to infectious virions, and the high seroprevalence of HCMV throughout the world is due to long-term excretion of HCMV in bodily fluids from multiple mucosal sites. Accumulating evidence presents a model where the earliest virus-host interactions following infection dictate the long-term pattern of infection, alter innate immune responses that skew adaptive responses to enable persistence within an immune host, and are essential for reinfection of a host with prior immunity. HCMV has evolved a complex repertoire of viral functions fine-tuned to manipulate the immune environment both locally at the sites of infection and systemically within an infected host. Collectively, viral immune modulation represents a significant impediment for an HCMV vaccine. As HCMV can disseminate beyond mucosal surfaces to reinfect immune hosts, it may not matter whether prior immunity results from prior infection or immunization. A better understanding of the earliest virus-hosts interactions at mucosal surfaces may identify elements of the viral proteome that are especially susceptible to vaccine-mediated disruption and prevent challenge virus from disseminating to distal sites, particularly the maternal-fetal interface.
    Viruses 04/2014; 6(4):1483-1501. DOI:10.3390/v6041483 · 3.28 Impact Factor