Crystal structure of a statin bound to a class II hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase
ABSTRACT Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase is the primary target in the current clinical treatment of hypercholesterolemias with specific inhibitors of the "statin" family. Statins are excellent inhibitors of the class I (human) enzyme but relatively poor inhibitors of the class II enzymes of important bacterial pathogens. To investigate the molecular basis for this difference we determined the x-ray structure of the class II Pseudomonas mevalonii HMG-CoA reductase in complex with the statin drug lovastatin. The structure shows lovastatin bound in the active site and its interactions with residues critically involved in catalysis and substrate binding. Binding of lovastatin also displaces the flap domain of the enzyme, which contains the catalytic residue His-381. Comparison with the structures of statins bound to the human enzyme revealed a similar mode of binding but marked differences in specific interactions that account for the observed differences in affinity. We suggest that these differences might be exploited to develop selective class II inhibitors for use as antibacterial agents against pathogenic microorganisms.
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Article: New Targets for Antibacterial Agents[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The alarming increase and spread of resistance among emerging and re-emerging bacterial pathogens to all clinically useful antibiotics is one of the most serious public health problems of the last decade. Thus, the search for new antibacterials directed toward new targets is not only a continuous process but also, at this time, an urgent necessity. Recent advances in molecular biological technologies have significantly increased the ability to discover new antibacterial targets and quickly predict their spectrum and selectivity. The most extensively evaluated bacterial targets for drug development are: quorum sensor biosynthesis; the two component signal transduction(TCST) systems; bacteria division machinery; the shikimate pathway; isoprenoid biosynthesis and fatty acid biosynthesis.
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ABSTRACT: The six enzymes of the mevalonate pathway of isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthesis represent potential for addressing a pressing human health concern, the development of antibiotics against resistant strains of the Gram-positive streptococci. We previously characterized the first four of the mevalonate pathway enzymes of Enterococcus faecalis, and here characterize the fifth, phosphomevalonate kinase (E.C. 126.96.36.199). E. faecalis genomic DNA and the polymerase chain reaction were used to clone DNA thought to encode phosphomevalonate kinase into pET28b(+). Double-stranded DNA sequencing verified the sequence of the recombinant gene. The encoded N-terminal hexahistidine-tagged protein was expressed in Escherichia coli with induction by isopropylthiogalactoside and purified by Ni(++) affinity chromatography, yield 20 mg protein per liter. Analysis of the purified protein by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry established it as E. faecalis phosphomevalonate kinase. Analytical ultracentrifugation revealed that the kinase exists in solution primarily as a dimer. Assay for phosphomevalonate kinase activity used pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase to couple the formation of ADP to the oxidation of NADH. Optimal activity occurred at pH 8.0 and at 37 degrees C. The activation energy was approximately 5.6 kcal/mol. Activity with Mn(++), the preferred cation, was optimal at about 4 mM. Relative rates using different phosphoryl donors were 100 (ATP), 3.6 (GTP), 1.6 (TTP), and 0.4 (CTP). K(m) values were 0.17 mM for ATP and 0.19 mM for (R,S)-5-phosphomevalonate. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 3.9 micromol substrate converted per minute per milligram protein. Applications to an immobilized enzyme bioreactor and to drug screening and design are discussed.Protein Science 06/2005; 14(5):1134-9. DOI:10.1110/ps.041210405 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gas vesicles are gas-filled proteinaceous organelles that provide buoyancy for bacteria and archaea. A gene cluster that is highly conserved in various species encodes about 8-14 proteins (Gvp proteins) that are involved in the formation of gas vesicles. Here, the first crystal structure of the gas vesicle protein GvpF from Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 is reported at 2.7 Å resolution. GvpF is composed of two structurally distinct domains (the N-domain and C-domain), both of which display an α+β class overall structure. The N-domain adopts a novel fold, whereas the C-domain has a modified ferredoxin fold with an apparent variation owing to an extension region consisting of three sequential helices. The two domains pack against each other via interactions with a C-terminal tail that is conserved among cyanobacteria. Taken together, it is concluded that the overall architecture of GvpF presents a novel fold. Moreover, it is shown that GvpF is most likely to be a structural protein that is localized at the gas-facing surface of the gas vesicle by immunoblotting and immunogold labelling-based tomography.Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 11/2014; 70(Pt 11):3013-22. DOI:10.1107/S1399004714021312 · 7.23 Impact Factor