emm Gene distribution among erythromycin-resistant and -susceptible Italian isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes.
ABSTRACT The phenotypes and genetic determinants for macrolide resistance were determined for 167 erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes strains. A cMLS phenotype was shown in 18% of the erythromycin-resistant strains, while inducible resistance was apparent in 31% and the M phenotype was apparent in 50%. The emm gene type of this set of resistant isolates and that of 48 erythromycin-sensitive isolates were determined. emm2 and emm48 were recorded only in the resistant strains of the M phenotype, while approximately all of the strains harboring the emm22 gene had the cMLS phenotype. More than 80% of the emm89-positive strains had the iMLS phenotype, and the same portion of emm4 strains presented the M phenotype. emm3 is recorded only among sensitive strains. The distribution of frequencies of the genetic determinant for the virulence factor M protein was significantly different both among organisms of different types of resistance and between resistant and sensitive populations of S. pyogenes under study.
Journal of general microbiology 08/1961; 25:347-52.
Article: Indolinone tyrosine kinase inhibitors block Kit activation and growth of small cell lung cancer cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Six indolinone tyrosine kinase inhibitors were characterized for their ability to inhibit Kit kinase and for their effects on the growth of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines. All of the six compounds were potent inhibitors of Kit kinase in a biochemical assay. A homology model of compound binding to the ATP binding site could account for the increased potency observed with the addition of a propionate moiety to the indolinone core but not the increase observed with addition of a chloride moiety. Although all of the compounds tested were potent in the biochemical assay, several exhibited significantly less potency in cellular kinase assays. Their effects on stem cell factor (SCF)-dependent Kit autophosphorylation and SCLC cell growth were also examined. Inhibition of SCF-stimulated Kit activation and cell growth in the H526 cell line was dose-dependent. At concentrations that inhibited SCF-stimulated H526 cell growth, there was little effect on insulin-like growth factor-1-stimulated growth, suggesting that these compounds exhibit reasonable selectivity for inhibition of Kit-mediated proliferation. Higher doses of the compounds were needed to inhibit serum-stimulated growth. Of the six compounds examined, SU5416 and SU6597 demonstrated the best cellular potency and, therefore, their effect on the growth of multiple SCLC cell lines in serum-containing media was examined. In addition to inhibiting proliferation, these compounds also induced significant cell death of several SCLC cell lines, but not of normal human diploid fibroblasts, in complete media. These observations suggest that Kit kinase inhibitors such as these may offer a new approach for inhibiting Kit-mediated proliferation of tumors such as SCLC, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, seminomas, and leukemias.Cancer Research 06/2001; 61(9):3660-8. · 7.86 Impact Factor