Chloroplast redox control of nuclear gene expression--a new class of plastid signals in interorganellar communication.

Institute of General Botany, Department of Plant Physiology, University of Jena, Jena, Germany.
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling (Impact Factor: 7.67). 03/2003; 5(1):95-101. DOI: 10.1089/152308603321223586
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chloroplasts are genetically semiautonomous organelles that contain their own subset of 100-120 genes coding for chloroplast proteins, tRNAs, and rRNAs. However, the great majority of the chloroplast proteins are encoded in the nucleus and must be imported into the organelle after their translation in the cytosol. This arrangement requires a high degree of coordination between the gene expression machineries in chloroplasts and nucleus, which is achieved by a permanent exchange of information between both compartments. The existence of such coordinating signals has long been known; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms and signaling routes are not understood. The present data indicate that the expression of nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins is coupled to the functional state of the chloroplasts. Photosynthesis, which is the major function of chloroplasts, plays a crucial role in this context. Changes in the reduction/oxidation (redox) state of components of the photosynthetic machinery act as signals, which regulate the expression of chloroplast proteins in both chloroplasts and nucleus and help to coordinate the expression both in compartments. Recent advances in understanding chloroplast redox regulation of nuclear gene expression are summarized, and the importance for intracellular signaling is discussed.

Download full-text


Available from: Thomas Pfannschmidt, Jun 22, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plant cells are often exposed to oxidative cellular environments which result in the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). In order to detoxify the harmful ROS, plants have evolved various strategies including their scavenging and antioxidant machinery. Plant cellscontain many enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants which aid in removing the toxic oxygen molecules. Various antioxidant molecules localized within different cellular compartments play crucial role(s) during this process, which includes both redox-signalling and redox-homeostasis. The present review gives an overview of cellular oxidativeenvironment, redox signalling operative within a cell and contributions of major cellular organelles towards maintaining the redox homeostasis. Additionally, the importance of various antioxidant enzymes working in an orchestrated and coordinated manner within acell, to protect it from stress injury has been presented. We also present the state-of-the-art where transgenic approach has been used to improve stress tolerance in model and crop species by engineering one or more than one of these components of the ROS scavenging machinery.
    12/2014; 2. DOI:10.3389/fenvs.2014.00070
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Anaerobiosis is a stress condition for aerobic organisms and requires extensive acclimation responses. We used RNA-Seq for a whole-genome view of the acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to anoxic conditions imposed simultaneously with transfer to the dark. Nearly 1.4 × 10(3) genes were affected by hypoxia. Comparing transcript profiles from early (hypoxic) with those from late (anoxic) time points indicated that cells activate oxidative energy generation pathways before employing fermentation. Probable substrates include amino acids and fatty acids (FAs). Lipid profiling of the C. reinhardtii cells revealed that they degraded FAs but also accumulated triacylglycerols (TAGs). In contrast with N-deprived cells, the TAGs in hypoxic cells were enriched in desaturated FAs, suggesting a distinct pathway for TAG accumulation. To distinguish transcriptional responses dependent on COPPER RESPONSE REGULATOR1 (CRR1), which is also involved in hypoxic gene regulation, we compared the transcriptomes of crr1 mutants and complemented strains. In crr1 mutants, ∼40 genes were aberrantly regulated, reaffirming the importance of CRR1 for the hypoxic response, but indicating also the contribution of additional signaling strategies to account for the remaining differentially regulated transcripts. Based on transcript patterns and previous results, we conclude that nitric oxide-dependent signaling cascades operate in anoxic C. reinhardtii cells.
    The Plant Cell 09/2013; DOI:10.1105/tpc.113.115741 · 9.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Flowering plants control energy allocation to their photosystems in response to light quality changes. This includes the phosphorylation and migration of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) proteins (state transitions or short-term response) as well as long-term alterations in thylakoid composition (long-term response or LTR). Both responses require the thylakoid protein kinase STN7. Here, we show that the signaling pathways triggering state transitions and LTR diverge at, or immediately downstream from, STN7. Both responses require STN7 activity that can be regulated according to the plastoquinone pool redox state. However, LTR signaling does not involve LHCII phosphorylation or any other state transition step. State transitions appear to play a prominent role in flowering plants, and the ability to perform state transitions becomes critical for photosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants that are impaired in thylakoid electron transport but retain a functional LTR. Our data imply that STN7-dependent phosphorylation of an as yet unknown thylakoid protein triggers LTR signaling events, whereby an involvement of the TSP9 protein in the signaling pathway could be excluded. The LTR signaling events then ultimately regulate in chloroplasts the expression of photosynthesis-related genes on the transcript level, whereas expression of nuclear-encoded proteins is regulated at multiple levels, as indicated by transcript and protein profiling in LTR mutants.
    The Plant Cell 09/2009; 21(8):2402-23. DOI:10.1105/tpc.108.064964 · 9.58 Impact Factor