Article

GUGULIPID: a natural cholesterol-lowering agent.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
Annual Review of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 10.46). 02/2003; 23:303-13. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.23.011702.073102
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The resin of the Commiphora mukul tree has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for more than 2000 years to treat a variety of ailments. Studies in both animal models and humans have shown that this resin, termed gum guggul, can decrease elevated lipid levels. The stereoisomers E- and Z-guggulsterone have been identified as the active agents in this resin. Recent studies have shown that these compounds are antagonist ligands for the bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is an important regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. It is likely that this effect accounts for the hypolipidemic activity of these phytosteroids.

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    05/2010, Degree: PhD, Supervisor: Bart Staels
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperlipidemia was induced experimentally in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding high fat synthetic diet for eight weeks. Concomitantly, animals were daily treated by either atorvastatin (1mg/kg), fresh garlic homogenate (250 mg/Kg), capsaicin (1mg/kg) or guggulipid (285mg/kg). Similar groups of animals fed with hyperlipidemic diet received combined treatment by atorvastatin (Ator) together with either of fresh garlic homogenate (Gar), capsaicin (Cap) or guggulipid (Gug) in the same above mentioned dose levels. Animals were then evaluated for the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, HDL-c, LDL-c, AST and ALT after 8 weeks.The obtained results showed that administration of either of Ator, Gar, Cap and Gug reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL-c levels, and increases that of HDL-c as compared to non treated hyperlipidemic rats. Co-administration of Ator and each of the used herbal drugs resulted in reduction in serum cholesterol and LDL-c levels and improving the HDL-c level more than the corresponding single treated groups. Similar associated results were found regarding TC/ HDL-c and LDL-c / HDL-c ratios. The obtained liver pathology results confirmed that co-administration of Gar, Cap and Gug with Ator could reduce the hyperlipidemia and the Ator-induced liver injury. Liver histopathological examination showed that single treatment with either of Ator, Gar, Cap or Gug could induce improvement in the degenerative fatty changes as compared to HFD non-treated rats. Combined treatment induced a great improvement, especially in group treated with Ator and Gug where hepatocytes of this group showed normal hepatic architecture. In conclusion, administration of either of Ator, Gar, Cap or Gug exerted a protective effect in management of hyperlipidemia. The obtained findings point to the possibility of optimizing the hypolipidemic efficacy of Ator as a synthetic hypolipidemic drug through its administration in a relatively lower dose together with hypolipidemic substances of plant origin, the matter which needs further investigations.
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hyperlipidemia was induced experimentally in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding high fat synthetic diet for eight weeks. Concomitantly, animals were daily treated by either atorvastatin (1mg/kg), fresh garlic homogenate (250 mg/Kg), capsaicin (1mg/kg) or guggulipid (285mg/kg). Similar groups of animals fed with hyperlipidemic diet received combined treatment by atorvastatin (Ator) together with either of fresh garlic homogenate (Gar), capsaicin (Cap) or guggulipid (Gug) in the same above mentioned dose levels. Animals were then evaluated for the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, HDL-c, LDL-c, AST and ALT after 8 weeks.The obtained results showed that administration of either of Ator, Gar, Cap and Gug reduced serum total cholesterol and LDL-c levels, and increases that of HDL-c as compared to non treated hyperlipidemic rats. Co-administration of Ator and each of the used herbal drugs resulted in reduction in serum cholesterol and LDL-c levels and improving the HDL-c level more than the corresponding single treated groups. Similar associated results were found regarding TC/ HDL-c and LDL-c / HDL-c ratios. The obtained liver pathology results confirmed that co-administration of Gar, Cap and Gug with Ator could reduce the hyperlipidemia and the Ator-induced liver injury. Liver histopathological examination showed that single treatment with either of Ator, Gar, Cap or Gug could induce improvement in the degenerative fatty changes as compared to HFD non-treated rats. Combined treatment induced a great improvement, especially in group treated with Ator and Gug where hepatocytes of this group showed normal hepatic architecture. In conclusion, administration of either of Ator, Gar, Cap or Gug exerted a protective effect in management of hyperlipidemia. The obtained findings point to the possibility of optimizing the hypolipidemic efficacy of Ator as a synthetic hypolipidemic drug through its administration in a relatively lower dose together with hypolipidemic substances of plant origin, the matter which needs further investigations.