GUGULIPID a natural cholesterol-lowering agent

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
Annual Review of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 8.36). 02/2003; 23(1):303-13. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.23.011702.073102
Source: PubMed


The resin of the Commiphora mukul tree has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for more than 2000 years to treat a variety of ailments. Studies in both animal models and humans have shown that this resin, termed gum guggul, can decrease elevated lipid levels. The stereoisomers E- and Z-guggulsterone have been identified as the active agents in this resin. Recent studies have shown that these compounds are antagonist ligands for the bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is an important regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. It is likely that this effect accounts for the hypolipidemic activity of these phytosteroids.

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    • "It is a complex mixture of various classes of chemical compounds such as lignans, lipids, diterpenoids and steroids (Hanus et al., 2005) and has been used to treat a variety of ailments. The classical Ayurvedic literature claims guggul to be efficient in treating rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, neurological diseases, hemorrhoids, urinary disorders, skin diseases, allied disorders and other therapeutic uses (Urizar and Moore, 2003). Pharmacological studies on the guggul resin have revealed that they have significant anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, hypocholesterolemic properties and used in treating cardiovascular diseases and cancer (Deng, 2007; Kimura et al., 2001; Satyavati, 1991; Satyavati et al., 1969). "
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    ABSTRACT: Guggul gum resin from Commiphora wightii (syn. Commiphoramukul) has been used for centuries in Ayurveda to treat a variety of ailments. The NMR and GC–MS based non-targeted metabolite profiling identified 118 chemically diverse metabolites including amino acids, fatty acids, organic acids, phenolic acids, pregnane-derivatives, steroids, sterols, sugars, sugar alcohol, terpenoids, and tocopherol from aqueous and non-aqueous extracts of leaves, stem, roots, latex and fruits of C. wightii. Out of 118, 51 structurally diverse aqueous metabolites were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. For the first time quinic acid and myo-inositol were identified as the major metabolites in C. wightii. Very high concentration of quinic acid was found in fruits (553.5 ± 39.38 mg g−1 dry wt.) and leaves (212.9 ± 10.37 mg g−1 dry wt.). Similarly, high concentration of myo-inositol (168.8 ± 13.84 mg g−1 dry wt.) was observed from fruits. The other metabolites of cosmeceutical, medicinal, nutraceutical and industrial significance such as α-tocopherol, n-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), trans-farnesol, prostaglandin F2, protocatechuic, gallic and cinnamic acids were identified from non-aqueous extracts using GC–MS. These important metabolites have thus far not been reported from this plant. Isolation of a fungal endophyte, (Nigrospora sps.) from this plant is the first report. The fungal endophyte produced a substantial quantity of bostrycin and deoxybostrycin known for their antitumor properties. Very high concentrations of quinic acid and myo-inositol in leaves and fruits; a substantial quantity of α-tocopherol and NMP in leaves, trans-farnesol in fruits, bostrycin and deoxybostrycin from its endophyte makes the taxa distinct, since these metabolites with medicinal properties find immense applications as dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.
    Phytochemistry 05/2015; 110:29-36. DOI:10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.12.016 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    • "(Burseraceae) and contains the active constituent known as guggulsterone [4, 17(20)-pregnadiene-3, 16-dione]. The resin of the C. mukul tree has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for centuries to treat such ailments as obesity, bone fractures, arthritis, inflammation, cardiovascular disease and lipid disorders (Sinal & Gonzalez, 2002; Urizar & Moore, 2003). Previous studies have shown that guggulsterone downregulates , expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and matrix metalloprotease (MMP-9). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Guggulipid is a neutral fraction of ethyl acetate extract of gum resin of the tree Commiphora mukul Engl. (Burseraceae) and used in Ayurvedic medicine for treatment of neurological disorders. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to assess the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic activities of guggulipid in rats. Materials and methods: The screening study included the CCI and L5-L6 SNL models of neuropathic pain. Guggulipid (100 and 50 mg/kg) or saline was administered intraperitoneally in a blinded, randomized manner from postoperative day (POD) 7 to 13. Paw withdrawal duration (PWD) to spontaneous pain, chemical allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were tested before surgery, before and after guggulipid or saline administration (from POD7 to 13) and after the withdrawal of treatment (from POD14 to 20). Results: The activity profiles of the different doses of guggulipid were found to vary with time. In CCI rats, guggulipid (100 and 50 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the spontaneous pain, mechanical allodynia and mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia responses and the LD50 of guggulipid was 1600 mg/kg. In SNL rats, both doses of guggulipid were found to be ineffective in reversing the spontaneous pain but showing antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic activity. Discussion and conclusion: The results demonstrated that guggulipid produce antinociception in the peripheral nerve injury (CCI and SNL) models of neuropathic pain. The underlying mechanisms are expected to be modulating microglial activation occurring due to peripheral nerve injury.
    Pharmaceutical Biology 07/2013; 51(12). DOI:10.3109/13880209.2013.796392 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    • "There was an increased uptake of iodine by the thyroid gland. As a result, thyroid peroxidase and protease activities increased in albino rats with a concomitant increase in oxygen consumption (Urizar and Moore, 2003). Experiments have demonstrated that there is possible involvement of lipid peroxidation in the thyroid function of mice on administration of guggul. "
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    ABSTRACT: Oleo gum resin secreted by Commiphora mukul, also known as gum guggul, has been used widely as an ayurvedic drug. Commiphora mukul is a short thorny shrub that is native to the Indian subcontinent. Oleo gum resin extracted by incision of the bark is a very complex mixture of gum, minerals, essential oils, terpenes, sterols, ferrulates, flavanones and sterones. Its active constituents, the Z- and E-guggulsterones, have been demonstrated to exhibit their biological activities by binding to nuclear receptors and modulating the expression of proteins involved in carcinogenic activities. Guggulsterones have also been reported to regulate gene expression by exhibiting control over other molecular targets including transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and steroid receptors. Considerable scientific evidence indicates the use of gum guggul as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of inflammation, nervous disorders, hyperlipidaemia and associated cardiac disorders such as hypertension and ischaemia, skin disorders, cancer and urinary disorders. This review highlights the taxonomic details, phytochemical properties and pharmacological profile of gum guggul. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Phytotherapy Research 11/2012; 26(11):1594-605. DOI:10.1002/ptr.4647 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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