Regulation of Bcl-2 expression by dihydrotestosterone in hormone sensitive LNCaP-FGC prostate cancer cells.
ABSTRACT Up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 proto-oncogene is associated with androgen independent prostate cancer progression. This observation suggests that the expression of bcl-2 may be negatively regulated by androgens in prostate cancer cells.
The expression of the proto-oncogene bcl-2 was assessed in the hormone sensitive prostate cancer cell line LNCaP-FGC in the presence and absence of a physiological concentration of 1 nM. dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Sequence analysis of the bcl-2 promoter regions demonstrated the presence of 2 potential androgen response elements. Transient transfections of luciferase reporter constructs containing these potential androgen response elements into LNCaP-FGC cells in the presence and absence of DHT were performed. Steady-state transcripts of bcl-2 were assessed using RNase protection assays.
Cells cultured in charcoal stripped serum in the presence of DHT resulted in down-regulation of bcl-2 protein. Down-regulation of bcl-2 protein and mRNA by DHT was inhibited by coincubation with the antiandrogen bicalutamide, an agent that competitively inhibits binding of DHT to androgen receptor. Luciferase reporter constructs containing candidate androgen response elements were transrepressed in the presence of DHT. Bcl-2 mRNA was also down-regulated by DHT and this down-regulation could not be abolished by cycloheximide.
Together these results suggest that the suppression of bcl-2 expression by DHT in hormone sensitive LNCaP-FGC prostate cancer cells occurs directly. In addition, these results provide a possible mechanistic basis for the up-regulation (derepression) of bcl-2 observed in hormone independent prostate cancers.
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ABSTRACT: Markers predictive of therapeutic response of prostatic tumors to radiotherapy may have major significance in optimizing effective treatment of prostate cancer. Because inherent cellular radioresistance plays a critical role in the failure of radiotherapy, in this study, we investigated whether there is a correlation between the ratio of two apoptosis regulators, bcl-2 (apoptosis suppressor) and bax (apoptosis inducer) in prostatic tumors and the clinical response to radiotherapy in patients with localized prostate cancer. A retrospective review of records of 41 patients who underwent external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer was conducted. On the basis of post-treatment prostate biopsy and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) criteria, the cancers of 20 patients were classified as radiation nonresponders and 21 as radiation responders. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on paraffin-embedded prostate sections to determine the level of expression of the two apoptotic proteins, bcl-2 and bax, in tumor cells. bcl-2 immunoreactivity was significantly higher in prostatic tumors not responsive to radiotherapy (38.6+/-4.1), compared with the radiation responders (24.1+/-4.6) (P <0.001). Expression of bax protein was lower in nonresponders, but values were not significantly different from the responders. The resulting significantly higher bcl-2/bax ratio (P <0.01) correlated with poor therapeutic responsiveness of prostate cancer to radiotherapy (1.12+/-0.12 and 0.56+/-0.13, for nonresponders and responders, respectively). This correlation (r=0.67) was independent of age, PSA, and Gleason score. These findings suggest that patients with an elevated bcl-2/bax ratio are at increased risk of their cancer failing to respond to radiotherapy. This study suggests a predictive value for the bcl-2/bax ratio as a potential molecular marker for predicting radioresistance of prostatic tumors.Urology 01/1999; 52(6):1085-90. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, the potential interactions between dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a survival factor, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), an apoptotic inducer, were examined in a derivative of the hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cell line LNCAP: The LNCaP TGF-beta receptor II cells, engineered to express TGF-beta receptor II, are sensitive to both DHT and TGF-beta. Surprisingly, when the LNCaP TGF-beta receptor II cells were treated with TGF-beta in the presence of physiological levels of DHT, both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction were significantly enhanced over TGF-beta alone. This effect temporally correlated with an increased expression of the cell cycle regulator p21 as well as the apoptotic executioner, procaspase-1, and a parallel down-regulation of the antiapoptotic protein, bcl-2. Expression of bax and caspase-3 proteins remained unchanged following treatment. Furthermore, apoptosis induction was suppressed by the caspase-1 inhibitor, z-YVAD, but not the caspase-3 inhibitor, z-DQMD, thus demonstrating the functional significance of increased procaspase-1 expression in TGF-beta-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. These results indicate that TGF-beta-mediated apoptosis can actually be enhanced by androgens through specific mechanisms involving cell cycle and apoptosis regulators and provide initial evidence on the ability of physiological levels of androgens to stimulate the intrinsic apoptotic potential of prostate cancer cells. Therefore, this study provides a molecular basis for the priming of prostate cancer cells for maximal apoptosis induction, during hormone- ablation therapy.Endocrinology 07/2001; 142(6):2419-26. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although a large proportion of primary human breast cancers express the androgen receptor, and treatment with androgens exerts beneficial effects in women with breast cancer, the role and especially the mechanism of action of androgens in breast cancer development and growth are not well understood. The potential effect of androgens on bcl-2 protooncogene expression was investigated in a human breast cancer cell line whose proliferation is known to be inhibited by androgens. The estrogen-responsive ZR-75-1 cells were grown in the presence or absence of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), alone or in combination with 17beta-estradiol. DHT caused a marked down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein and messenger RNA levels in both the presence and absence of 17beta-estradiol. The inhibitory effect of DHT was completely prevented by coincubation with the pure antiandrogen hydroxyflutamide. The present data indicate that androgens can down-regulate bcl-2 protooncogene levels via an androgen receptor-mediated mechanism, thus providing a novel mechanism for their known inhibitory effect on breast cancer cell growth.Endocrinology 02/1999; 140(1):416-21. · 4.72 Impact Factor