Article

Phenotyping CYP3A using midazolam in cancer and noncancer Asian patients.

Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.58). 03/2003; 55(3):270-7. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01767.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To investigate CYP3A activity in cancer and noncancer Asian patients using midazolam and to reveal possible alternative traits for phenotyping CYP3A.
Intravenous midazolam 2.5 mg or 2.5-8 mg was administered to 27 cancer and 24 noncancer patients, respectively. Plasma was sampled at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3.5 and 5 h after intravenous ultrashort, 30 s infusion. Plasma midazolam and 1'-hydroxymidazolam concentrations were determined using GCMS. The disposition of midazolam and 1'-hydroxymidazolam in these patients was compared. Midazolam clearance was correlated with dose-normalized plasma midazolam concentrations (concentration/per dose).
Clearance (CL) and steady state volume of distribution (Vss) of midazolam (mean +/- SD, 95% confidence level) in cancer (424 +/- 155, 61.3 ml min(-1); 1.21 +/- 0.46, 0.18 l kg(-1)) and noncancer (407 +/- 135, 57.1 ml min(-1); 1.15 +/- 0.33, 0.155 l kg(-1)) patients, respectively, were not different and comparable with published data. Clearance variability was 4-5 fold in both groups. Midazolam clearance correlated significantly with all plasma concentration/per dose at and after the 1-h time point, with a minimum correlation coefficient of r = 0.752, P < 0.001.
CYP3A activities determined with different doses of midazolam in cancer and noncancer Asian patients showed variability of 4-5-fold and were not different between groups. One to two-fold plasma midazolam concentrations per dose may be feasible as a simple alternative phenotypic trait for hepatic CYP3A activity determination.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
54 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Drugs metabolized by cytochrome CYP3A isoenzymes have wide interindividual variability and normally distributed plasma clearance distributions. This makes precise dosing difficult to achieve clinically, which may compromise safe therapy. We hypothesized that with potent inhibition of CYP3A, we could clinically render patients "poor metabolizer" phenotype status, and thus reduce interindividual pharmacokinetic variability of midazolam, a well-known CYP3A substrate. Intravenous bolus midazolam at doses of 2.5 mg and 1 mg were administered to 28 and 29 patients with cancer with and without co-administration of 200 mg of oral ketoconazole twice per day respectively for 3 days, starting 1 day before midazolam. Pharmacokinetic analyses of midazolam on both groups were derived using noncompartmental methods and compared. The mean clearance (CL) of midazolam was reduced 6 times by ketoconazole. Midazolam CL were normally distributed in both groups, and ranged from 1.7 to 51.9 and 1.4 to 8.2 L/hour in the control and ketoconazole groups, respectively, corresponding to a 7-fold reduction in dispersion between the 2 groups. Area-under-the-curve variability was reduced by >100%. A limited sampling model consisting of time points at 15 and 300 minutes was validated as a phenotype for CYP3A activity to facilitate the use of midazolam as a probe drug for CYP3A activity. Potent inhibition of CYP3A by ketoconazole reduced midazolam CL and area-under-the-curve variability, allowing for more precise achievement of therapeutic target drug exposure. Prospective evaluation of this approach, together with dose adjustment based on limited sampling, seems warranted.
    Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 05/2006; 28(2):255-61. · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We aim to evaluate the influence of covariates, including cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) genetic polymorphisms, on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam (MDZ) in Asian cancer patients, using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Pharmacokinetic data were obtained from twenty-four adult cancer patients who received an intravenous bolus dose of 1mg MDZ as a CYP3A phenotyping probe, one day before starting FOLFIRI chemotherapy. Concentrations of MDZ and its major metabolites, 1'-hydroxymidazolam (1OHM) and 1'-hydroxymidazolam glucuronide (HMG) were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The population pharmacokinetic study was conducted using NONMEM. Demographics, clinical characteristics and genetic polymorphisms were screened as covariates. A two-compartment model for MDZ and two sequential compartments representing 1OHM and HMG best described the data. The CYP3A5*3 and total bilirubin level significantly influenced MDZ clearance. The population typical MDZ clearance for CYP3A5*3 expressers was 22% lower than non-expressers. Baseline bodyweight was a statistically significant covariate for clearance and distribution volume of 1OHM. Creatinine clearance was positively correlated with HMG clearance. Our data indicate that CYP3A5*3, total bilirubin, bodyweight and creatinine clearance are important predictors of MDZ and metabolite pharmacokinetics. Further studies in more patients are needed to explore the links between the identified covariates and the disposition of MDZ and its metabolites.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 11/2013; · 2.84 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
17 Downloads
Available from
Jun 1, 2014