Carbohydrate-derived spiroketals: stereoselective synthesis of di-D-fructose dianhydrides via intramolecular aglycon delivery.
ABSTRACT [reaction: see text] A one-pot synthesis of C(2)-symmetric di-d-fructose dianhydrides having the 1,6,9,13-tetraoxadispiro [22.214.171.124]tetradecane skeleton has been accomplished via intramolecular aglycon delivery from (6 --> 6) xylylene-tethered fructofuranose precursors. The stereochemical outcome of the glycosylation-spiroketalization process is governed by the geometrical constraints imposed by the rigid tetracyclic structure of the final compound.
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ABSTRACT: Di-D-fructose dianhydrides (DFAs) comprise a unique family of stereoisomeric spiro-tricyclic disaccharides formed upon thermal and/or acidic activation of sucrose- and/ or D-fructose-rich materials. The recent discovery of the presence of DFAs in food products and their remarkable nutritional features has attracted considerable interest from the food industry. DFAs behave as low-caloric sweeteners and have proven to exert beneficial prebiotic nutritional functions, favouring the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. In the era of functional foods, investigation of the beneficial properties of DFAs has become an important issue. However, the complexity of the DFA mixtures formed during caramelization or roasting of carbohydrates by traditional procedures (up to 14 diastereomeric spiroketal cores) makes evaluation of their individual properties a difficult challenge. Great effort has gone into the development of efficient procedures to obtain DFAs in pure form at laboratory and industrial scale. This paper is devoted to review the recent advances in the stereoselective synthesis of DFAs by means of chemical and enzymatic approaches, their scope, limitations, and complementarities.Molecules 02/2008; 13(8):1640-70. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Protection of trans-1,2-diol segments as cyclic o-xylylene ethers strongly favours diequatorial over diaxial dispositions; the possibility of using this grouping for remote control of the stereochemistry in the synthesis of spiroketals is here demonstrated by the stereoselective synthesis of tricyclic spirodisaccharides (di-D-fructose dianhydrides).Chemical Communications 07/2006; · 6.38 Impact Factor