Carrier frequency of the V377I (1129G>A) MVK mutation, associated with Hyper-IgD and periodic fever syndrome, in the Netherlands.
ABSTRACT Hyper-IgD and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS) and mevalonic aciduria (MA) are two autosomal recessive disorders that both are caused by a deficient activity of the enzyme mevalonate kinase (MK) due to mutations in the encoding gene (MVK). The most frequently occurring MVK mutation, V377I (1129G>A), has been identified exclusively in HIDS patients. Other common mutations have been associated with both HIDS and MA. To estimate the incidence of MK deficiency in the Netherlands, we determined the carrier frequency of the V377I mutation in genomic DNA extracted from anonymised newborn screening cards by PCR-RFLP. We found 14 carriers among 2138 analysed samples (1 : 153). Based on the V377I allele frequency of 42% in patients diagnosed with MK deficiency, the carrier frequency of any MVK mutation in the Dutch population can be calculated as 1 : 65. This predicts a disease incidence between 1 in 5196 and 1 in 53 656, which is far more than actually observed. Although under-diagnosis of patients with MK deficiency remains possible, this discrepancy probably is due to a reduced penetrance of V377I homozygosity. Analysis of the distribution of the V377I allele within patients carrying MVK mutations revealed that this was not according to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle, most probably due to an under-representation of V377I homozygotes in HIDS. Homozygotes for V377I might exhibit a much milder phenotype of MK deficiency or no disease-phenotype at all.