Effects of unfractionated and low molecular weight heparin on antiphospholipid antibody binding in vitro.
ABSTRACT To compare the efficacy of unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin in the in vitro binding of antiphospholipid antibodies obtained from the sera of patients with recurrent pregnancy loss.
Women with immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to the phospholipids cardiolipin and phosphatidylserine were selected based on a positive test by a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sera were reassayed for antiphospholipid antibodies in a modified ELISA using increasing doses of unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin (0, 16, 32, 64, 128, and 256 IU). Sera were fractionated by unfractionated and low molecular weight heparin affinity chromatography to compare the binding avidity and antiphospholipid antibody activity.
All sera demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition in measured antiphospholipid antibody activity with the addition of unfractionated or low molecular weight heparin. Levels of IgG cardiolipin and IgG phosphatidylserine were significantly inhibited in the presence of 32 IU of low molecular weight heparin (P <.001 and P <.05, respectively) and in the presence of 64 IU of unfractionated heparin (P <.001 and P <.05, respectively). Antiphospholipid antibody binding activity in serum as measured in the ELISA was maximally reduced 76-89% with 256 IU of either heparin derivative. Affinity chromatography with unfractionated or low molecular weight heparin columns absorbed 72% and 66% of IgG cardiolipin activity, respectively, and 46% and 54% of IgG phosphatidylserine activity, respectively.
These data suggest that low molecular weight heparin and unfractionated heparin reduce the in vitro binding of antiphospholipid antibodies on a per unit basis. Both heparins demonstrate binding activity similar to that of antiphospholipid antibodies in vitro.
- Thrombosis Research - THROMB RES. 01/1992; 68(6):495-500.
- Hematological complications in Obstetrics, pregnancy and Gynecology, edited by Bick RL, Frenkel EP, Baker WF, Sarode R, 01/2006: chapter Low Molecular Weight Heparins in Pregnancy; Cambridge University Press.
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ABSTRACT: The binding of unfractionated heparin to endothelium is thought to be responsible for the rapid and saturable phase of unfractionated heparin clearance. Thrombin can induce endothelial cells to express and/or secrete a number of heparin binding proteins that have the potential to increase the binding of unfractionated heparin and to a lesser extent the binding of low molecular weight heparin. To explore this possibility, we examined the binding of unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin to thrombin-activated endothelial cells. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells were used to determine the binding of 125I-labeled unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin to untreated and to thrombin-activated cells. After thrombin treatment, we obtained a time-dependent increase in the binding of radio-labeled unfractionated heparin. In contrast, there was much less binding of low molecular weight heparin, and a time-dependent increase was not apparent. After 30, 45, and 60 minutes of thrombin treatment, the binding of unfractionated heparin was significantly higher than that of low molecular weight heparin. The increase in binding of unfractionated heparin to thrombin-activated cells also was demonstrated using fluorescently labeled unfractionated heparin followed by fluorescence microscopy. The average fluorescence intensity of thrombin-treated cells increased by 44% when compared with resting cells. The present results indicate that thrombin can increase the binding of unfractionated heparin to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Thus, an activated endothelium may contribute to the variability of the anticoagulant response to unfractionated heparin. In contrast, the binding of low molecular weight heparin is much less affected, which may account for its better bioavailability and longer half-life.Thrombosis Research 01/2000; 96(5):373-81. · 3.13 Impact Factor