Bazooka is a permissive factor for the invasive behavior of discs large tumor cells in Drosophila ovarian follicular epithelia.
ABSTRACT Drosophila Bazooka and atypical protein kinase C are essential for epithelial polarity and adhesion. We show here that wild-type bazooka function is required during cell invasion of epithelial follicle cells mutant for the tumor suppressor discs large. Clonal studies indicate that follicle cell Bazooka acts as a permissive factor during cell invasion, possibly by stabilizing adhesion between the invading somatic cells and their substratum, the germline cells. Genetic epistasis experiments demonstrate that bazooka acts downstream of discs large in tumor cell invasion. In contrast, during the migration of border cells, Bazooka function is dispensable for cell invasion and motility, but rather is required cell-autonomously in mediating cell adhesion within the migrating border cell cluster. Taken together, these studies reveal Bazooka functions distinctly in different types of invasive behaviors of epithelial follicle cells, potentially by regulating adhesion between follicle cells or between follicle cells and their germline substratum.
Article: Differential regulation of Dlg1, Scrib, and Lgl1 expression in a transgenic mouse model of ocular cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Discs large (dlg), scribble (scrib), and lethal giant larvae (lgl) are major suppressor genes in Drosophila melanogaster. They encode proteins that regulate cell polarity and cell proliferation in Drosophila and mammals. However, their basic oncogenic roles have not yet been established in mouse epithelial ocular cancer. We evaluated the potential implication of these proteins in tumorigenesis of adenocarcinomas originating from the retinal pigmented epithelium of the Trp1/Tag transgenic mouse model. We examined the changes in the distribution and levels of these proteins in mouse ocular tissues from the Trp1/Tag mouse model. The expression patterns of theses genes and their corresponding proteins in normal mouse ocular tissues were studied by in situ hibridization and immunohistofluorescence experiments. In addition, variations in mRNA and proteins levels and protein distributions for Dlg1, Scrib, and Lgl1 were analyzed in the ocular tissues from Trp1/Tag transgenic mouse model by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis, and immunohistofluorescence. We found that mouse Dlg1, Scrib, and Lgl1 are widely distributed in normal ocular tissues, particularly in retinal neurons. We found that the three proteins are mislocalized in retinal layers during ocular carcinogenesis. These mislocalizations were correlated to the early dysplastic stages of ocular tumorigenesis. Additionally, the mislocalization of each protein was associated with its downregulation. Decreased levels of these proteins may be considered as late-stage markers of the disease but also as markers of the invasive stage of this cancerous process. This downregulation may be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in this mouse ocular tumoral model. This would be consistent with the downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of N-cadherin expression observed in this model. This is the first study to demonstrate the involvement of Dlg1, Scrib, and Lgl1 in a mouse with ocular adenocarcinoma and the simultaneous involvement of these proteins in the same cancer. Our results indicate that both the mislocalization and downregulation of these proteins may be involved together in ocular carcinogenesis.Molecular vision 02/2008; 14:2390-403. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intracellular protein transport is a key factor in epithelial cell polarity. Here we report that mutations in two core components of the vesicle trafficking machinery - a syntaxin and a Rab protein - cause an expansion of the apical membrane domain of Drosophila melanogaster epithelia; this polarity defect is coupled with overproliferation to form neoplastic tumours. Surprisingly, these proteins are associated with the endocytic, and not the exocytic, pathway. The syntaxin Avalanche (Avl) localizes to early endosomes, and loss of avl results in the cellular accumulation of specific membrane proteins, including the Notch signalling receptor and the polarity determinant Crumbs (Crb). Protein accumulation results from a failure in endosomal entry and progression towards lysosomal degradation; these and other avl phenotypes are also detected in Rab5 null mutant cells. Overexpression of Crb alone is sufficient to induce overproliferation of wild-type imaginal tissue, suggesting that polarity alterations in avl and Rab5 mutants directly contribute to tumour formation. Our findings reveal a critical and specific role for endocytic traffic in the control of both apico-basal polarity and cell proliferation.Nature Cell Biology 01/2006; 7(12):1232-9. · 19.49 Impact Factor