Comparison of L-bupivacaine 0.75% and lidocaine 2% with bupivacaine 0.75% and lidocaine 2% for peribulbar anaesthesia.
ABSTRACT L-Bupivacaine has a safer side-effect profile than bupivacaine. We compared the efficacy of a mixture of L-bupivacaine 0.75% and lidocaine 2% with bupivacaine 0.75% and lidocaine 2% for peribulbar anaesthesia in cataract surgery.
Ninety patients were allocated randomly to receive 8 ml of a mixture of equal parts of bupivacaine 0.75% and lidocaine 2% or an equal volume of L-bupivacaine and lidocaine 2%. Hyaluronidase 15 IU ml(-1) was added to both solutions.
There were significant differences between the groups in clinical end-points. The median time at which the block was adequate to start surgery was 4 min (interquartile range 4-8 min) in the bupivacaine group and 8 min (5-12 min) in the L-bupivacaine group (P=0.002). Median ocular and eyelid movement scores were similarly significantly decreased in the bupivacaine group compared with the L-bupivacaine group at all times (P</=0.03). There was no difference between groups in the incidence of minor complications.
A mixture of bupivacaine 0.75% and lidocaine 2% provides faster onset time than a mixture of L-bupivacaine 0.75% and lidocaine 2%.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the cardiovascular effects of levobupivacaine with those of rac-bupivacaine following i.v. administration to 14 healthy male volunteers. Drugs were infused (at 10 mg min(-1)) using a randomized, double-blind, complete crossover procedure with a washout period of at least 1 week. The administration of drug was discontinued on the appearance of defined CNS symptoms or when a total of 150 mg had been given. Parameters measured were arterial blood pressure, heart rate, ECG, ejection fraction, acceleration index, stroke index and cardiac index. The mean doses administered were 56.1 mg and 47.9 mg for levobupivacaine and rac-bupivacaine respectively and the maximum mean plasma concentrations were 2.62 and 2.25 microg ml(-1) respectively. Despite the dose and plasma concentrations being comparable, levobupivacaine produced a statistically significant smaller reduction in mean stroke index (-5.14 vs -11.86 ml m(-2), P=0.001), acceleration index (-0.09 vs -0.20 s(-2), P=0.011) and the ejection fraction (-2.50 vs -4.29%, P=0.024). Both levobupivacaine (non significant) and rac-bupivacaine (significant) produced small increases in the PR interval and the corrected QT interval and although the effects of rac-bupivacaine appeared to be greater the difference between the two drugs was not significant. In conclusion, this study has shown that following i.v. administration levobupivacaine produces significantly less effects on cardiovascular function than does rac-bupivacaine. In particular the negative inotropic effect for levobupivacaine was less than that for rac-bupivacaine as indicated by changes in stroke index, acceleration index and ejection fraction.British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10/1998; 46(3):245-9. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bupivacaine has a chiral centre and is currently available as a racemic mixture of its two enantiomers: R(+)-bupivacaine and S(-)-bupivacaine. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that there is enantiomer selectivity of action with the bulk of central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity residing with the R(+) isomer. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of S(-)-bupivacaine with racemic RS-bupivacaine for extradural anaesthesia. We studied 88 patients undergoing elective lower limb surgery under lumbar extradural anaesthesia who received 15 ml of 0.5% or 0.75% S(-)-bupivacaine, or 0.5% RS-bupivacaine in a randomized, double-blind study. There was no difference in onset time, maximum spread of sensory block or intensity of motor block between the three groups. Duration of sensory block was significantly longer for 0.75% S(-)-bupivacaine. We conclude that S(-)-bupivacaine has similar local anaesthetic characteristics to RS-bupivacaine when used for extradural anaesthesia.BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 04/1998; 80(3):289-93. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The object of this trial was to determine the efficacy in peribulbar anesthesia of bupivacaine 0.5%, 0.75%, and a combination of bupivacaine 0.5% and lignocaine 2% in equal parts. Fifty-one and 50 patients in random order were injected with 0.5% and 0.75% bupivacaine, respectively, and another 50 patients with the lignocaine/bupivacaine mixture. The results were recorded and all data were statistically analyzed. We concluded that the peribulbar route with the agents used in this trial was not a successful technique. Our criterion for a successful block, i.e., akinesia, was not achieved in more than 54% of cases.Journal of Cataract [?] Refractive Surgery 02/1993; 19(1):72-6. · 2.53 Impact Factor