Magnetic resonance proton spectroscopy and diffusion weighted imaging of chick embryo brain in ovo.
ABSTRACT Metabolic compensatory mechanisms may partly account for the decreased vulnerability to hypoxia observed in the developing brain. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted imaging to measure the cerebral concentrations of lactate and other metabolites, as well as the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of tissue water, before, during and after hypoxia in anaesthetised chick embryos in ovo. Reducing the inspired oxygen concentration to 8% for 40 min caused a significant rise in both mean (+/-S.D.) lactate:creatine and alanine:creatine ratios from 0.58 (0.41) to 1.56 (0.56) and 0.14 (0.14) to 0.29 (0.17), respectively. Under similar hypoxic conditions, ADC did not change from a mean baseline value of 0.95 (0.09), but did fall to 0.40 (0.12) x 10(9) mm(2) s(-1) with further stepwise reductions in oxygenation. Moderate hypoxia increases lactate concentration in the developing chick brain without compromising cellular energy metabolism.
Article: In ovo monitoring of smooth muscle fiber development in the chick embryo: diffusion tensor imaging with histologic correlation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive method of evaluating embryonic development. Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, which is based on the measuring the directional diffusivity of water molecules, is an established method of evaluating tissue structure. Prolonged imaging times have precluded the use of embryonic diffusion tensor imaging due to motion artifact. Using temperature-based motion suppression, we aimed to investigate whether diffusion tensor imaging can be used to monitor embryonic smooth muscle development in ovo, and to determine the correlation between histologically-derived muscle fiber fraction, day of incubation and diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values and length of tracked fibers. From a set of 82 normally developing fertile chicken eggs, 5 eggs were randomly chosen each day from incubation days 5 to 18 and cooled using a dual-cooling technique prior to and during magnetic resonance imaging at 3.0 Tesla. Smooth muscle fibers of the gizzard were tracked using region of interests placed over the gizzard. Following imaging, the egg was cracked and the embryo was fixated and sectioned, and a micrograph most closely corresponding to the acquired magnetic resonance image was made. Smooth muscle fiber fraction was determined using an automated computer algorithm. We show that diffusion tensor images of smooth muscle within the embryonic gizzard can be acquired in ovo from incubation day 11 through hatching. Length of tracked fibers and day of incubation were found to have statistical significance (p<0.05) by multiple linear regression correlation with histologic specimens of sacrificed embryos from day 11 of incubation through hatching. The morphologic pattern of development in our histologic specimens corresponds to the development of embryonic gizzard as reported in the literature. These results suggest that diffusion tensor imaging can provide a noninvasive method of evaluating in ovo development of smooth muscle tissue.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e34009. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: In ovo serial skeletal muscle diffusion tractography of the developing chick embryo using DTI: feasibility and correlation with histology.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive method of evaluating embryonic development. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), based on the directional diffusivity of water molecules, is an established method of evaluating tissue structure. Yet embryonic motion degrades the in vivo acquisition of long-duration DTI. We used a dual-cooling technique to avoid motion artifact and aimed to investigate whether DTI can be used to monitor chick embryonic skeletal muscle development in ovo, and to investigate the correlation between quantitative DTI parameters fractional anisotropy (FA) and fiber length and quantitative histologic parameters fiber area percentage (FiberArea%) and limb length. RESULTS: From 84 normally developing chick embryos, 5 were randomly chosen each day from incubation days 5 to 18 and scanned using 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. A dual-cooling technique is used before and during imaging. Eggs were cracked for making histological specimen after imaging. 3 eggs were serially imaged from days 5 to 18. We show that skeletal muscle fibers can be tracked in hind limb in DTI beginning with incubation day 8. Our data shows a good positive correlation between quantitative DTI and histologic parameters (FA vs FiberArea%: r= 0.943, p<0.0001; Fiber_length vs Limb_length: r=0.974, p<0.0001). The result of tracked fibers in DTI during incubation corresponds to the development of chick embryonic skeletal muscle as reported in the literature. CONCLUSION: Diffusion tensor imaging can provide a noninvasive means of evaluating skeletal muscle development in ovo.BMC Developmental Biology 12/2012; 12(1):38. · 2.79 Impact Factor