Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect segments of the M (matrix), N (nucleoprotein), and F (fusion) genes of human metapneumovirus in bronchoalveolar fluid from 30 infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Seventy percent of them were coinfected with metapneumovirus. Such coinfection might be a factor influencing the severity of bronchiolitis.
"Various disease severity has been shown for a range of respiratory viruses, and double viral infection is relatively common, occurring in about 10-30% of hospitalised patients [3-7]. There is no consensus, however, on the impact of such co-infection on disease severity : Some studies showed more severe disease in co-infected children [8-14], while others did not [15-21]. Most hospitals perform routine viral testing to identify and isolate RSV-infected infants, with the aim of reducing the risk of nosocomial cross-infection of other patients [22-24]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bronchiolitis is a major cause for hospitalisation in young children during the winter season, with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) as the main causative virus. Apart from standard hygiene measures, cohorting of RSV-infected patients separately from RSV-negative patients is frequently applied to prevent cross-infection, although evidence to support this practice is lacking. The objective is to evaluate the risk of room sharing between RSV-positive and RSV-negative patients.
We performed a prospective observational cohort study in children < 2 years hospitalised with acute bronchiolitis. During the first day of admission, patients shared one room, pending results of virological diagnosis (PCR). When diagnostic results were available, RSV-positive and RSV-negative patients were separated. Standard hygienic measures (gowns, gloves, masks, hand washing) were used in all patients.
We included 48 patients (83% RSV-positive). Co-infection was found in nine patients at admission, and two during hospitalisation (23%). The two patients with acquired co-infection had been nursed in a single room during the entire admission. None of 37 patients sharing a room with other bronchiolitis patients (20 with patients with a different virus) were co-infected during admission. Disease severity in co-infection was not worse than in mono-infection.
One in five patients with bronchiolitis was co-infected, but co-infection acquired during admission was rare and was not associated with more severe disease. Room sharing between RSV-positive and RSV-negative patients (on the first day of admission) did not influence the risk of co-infection, suggesting that cohorting of RSV-infected patients separate from non-RSV-infected patients may not be indicated.
Journal of Clinical Medicine Research 12/2013; 5(6):426-31. DOI:10.4021/jocmr1556w
"Upper HRSV infections spread to the lower respiratory tree to an extent generally considered proportional to the severity of the disease [Collins and Crowe, 2007]. With the advent of highly sensitive molecular diagnostic methods, reports of codetection of multiple respiratory viruses in the same sample have become increasingly frequent [Greensill et al., 2003; Wolf et al., 2006; Paranhos-Baccalà et al., 2008; Gagliardi et al., 2009]. However, the implications of the simultaneous detection of other respiratory viruses in children with HRSV-attributable disease have not been fully clarified [Semple et al., 2005; García-García et al., 2006]. "
"Different controversial reports suggest an association between RSV-hMPV coinfection and an increase in the disease severity or the absence of an association between dual infection and disease severity. Greensill and colleagues  reported a 70% rate of co-infection with hMPV in a cohort of infants with critical RSV bronchiolitis who required intensive care in the United Kingdom, suggesting that dual infection with RSV and hMPV may predispose for a more severe disease. In another study from the United Kingdom, hMPV and RSV co-infection was associated with increased disease severity and higher risk of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity in children both in developed and developing countries. A wide range of respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs), adenovirus, rhinovirus (HRV), have repeatedly been detected in acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children in the past decades. However, in the last ten years thanks to progress in molecular technologies, newly discovered viruses have been identified including human Metapneumovirus (hMPV), coronaviruses NL63 (HcoV-NL63) and HKU1 (HcoV-HKU1), human Bocavirus (HBoV), new enterovirus (HEV), parechovirus (HpeV) and rhinovirus (HRV) strains, polyomaviruses WU (WUPyV) and KI (KIPyV) and the pandemic H1N1v influenza A virus. These discoveries have heavily modified previous knowledge on respiratory infections mainly highlighting that pediatric population is exposed to a variety of viruses with similar seasonal patterns. In this context establishing a causal link between a newly identified virus and the disease as well as an association between mixed infections and an increase in disease severity can be challenging. This review will present an overview of newly recognized as well as the main emerging respiratory viruses and seek to focus on the their contribution to infection and co-infection in LRTIs in childhood.
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