The structural biology of growth factor receptor activation.
ABSTRACT Stimulation of cells by growth factors triggers cascades of signalling that result in cellular responses such as growth, differentiation, migration and survival. Many growth factors signal through receptor tyrosine kinases, leading to dimerization, trans-phosphorylation and activation of tyrosine kinases that phosphorylate components further downstream of the signal transduction cascade. Using insulin-like growth factor, nerve growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and fibroblast growth factor as examples, we show that the globular architecture of the growth factors is essential for receptor binding. We describe how nerve growth factor (NGF) is a symmetrical dimer that binds four storage proteins (two alpha-NGF and two gamma-NGF) to give a symmetrical hetero-hexameric 7SNGF organised around the beta-NGF dimer. It binds the extracellular domains of two receptor molecules in a similar way, so dimerising the receptor. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) probably binds its receptor as a dimer stabilised by interactions with heparan sulfate, and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) binds its receptor as a dimer cross-linked by heparan sulfate. Surprisingly, insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) bind in the monomeric form to receptors that are already covalent dimers. We propose that, in general, weak binary interactions between growth factor and individual domains of receptors are enhanced by cooperative interactions with further receptor domains, and sometimes other components like heparan, to give rise to specific multi-protein/domain complexes.
- SourceAvailable from: nih.gov[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The crystal structure of the phosphorylated, activated form of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase in complex with a peptide substrate and an ATP analog has been determined at 1.9 A resolution. The activation loop (A-loop) of the kinase undergoes a major conformational change upon autophosphorylation of Tyr1158, Tyr1162 and Tyr1163 within the loop, resulting in unrestricted access of ATP and protein substrates to the kinase active site. Phosphorylated Tyr1163 (pTyr1163) is the key phosphotyrosine in stabilizing the conformation of the tris-phosphorylated A-loop, whereas pTyr1158 is completely solvent-exposed, suggesting an availability for interaction with downstream signaling proteins. The YMXM-containing peptide substrate binds as a short anti-parallel beta-strand to the C-terminal end of the A-loop, with the methionine side chains occupying two hydrophobic pockets on the C-terminal lobe of the kinase. The structure thus reveals the molecular basis for insulin receptor activation via autophosphorylation, and provides insights into tyrosine kinase substrate specificity and the mechanism of phosphotransfer.The EMBO Journal 10/1997; 16(18):5572-81. · 9.82 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is involved in a variety of processes involving signalling, such as cell differentiation and survival, growth cessation and apoptosis of neurons. These events are mediated by NGF as a result of binding to its two cell-surface receptors, TrkA and p75. TrkA is a receptor with tyrosine kinase activity that forms a high-affinity binding site for NGF. Of the five domains comprising its extracellular portion, the immunoglobulin-like domain proximal to the membrane (TrkA-d5 domain) is necessary and sufficient for NGF binding. Here we present the crystal structure of human NGF in complex with human TrkA-d5 at 2.2 A resolution. The ligand-receptor interface consists of two patches of similar size. One patch involves the central beta-sheet that forms the core of the homodimeric NGF molecule and the loops at the carboxy-terminal pole of TrkA-d5. The second patch comprises the amino-terminal residues of NGF, which adopt a helical conformation upon complex formation, packing against the 'ABED' sheet of TrkA-d5. The structure is consistent with results from mutagenesis experiments for all neurotrophins, and indicates that the first patch may constitute a conserved binding motif for all family members, whereas the second patch is specific for the interaction between NGF and TrkA.Nature 10/1999; 401(6749):184-8. · 38.60 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The crystal structure of FGF2 bound to a naturally occurring variant of FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) consisting of immunoglobulin-like domains 2 (D2) and 3 (D3) has been determined at 2.8 A resolution. Two FGF2:FGFR1 complexes form a 2-fold symmetric dimer. Within each complex, FGF2 interacts extensively with D2 and D3 as well as with the linker between the two domains. The dimer is stabilized by interactions between FGF2 and D2 of the adjoining complex and by a direct interaction between D2 of each receptor. A positively charged canyon formed by a cluster of exposed basic residues likely represents the heparin-binding site. A general model for FGF- and heparin-induced FGFR dimerization is inferred from the crystal structure, unifying a wealth of biochemical data.Cell 10/1999; 98(5):641-50. · 31.96 Impact Factor