Transcription profiling of renal cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Our aim was to prepare a comprehensive catalogue of the changes in gene expression accompanying the development and progression of renal cell carcinoma, and to correlate these with histo-pathological, cytogenetic and clinical findings.
mRNA samples from paired neoplastic and non-cancerous human kidney tissue were labeled and hybridized in duplicate against high-density cDNA arrays. Two array technologies were used: 31,500-element transcriptome-wide nylon arrays for hybridization with 37 radioactively labelled sample pairs, and 4200-element kidney- and cancer-specific glass microarrays for hybridization with 19 fluorescently labelled sample pairs.
We identified more than 1700 cDNA clones that show differential transcription levels in kidney tumor tissue compared to normal kidney tissue. The functional classification of 389 annotated genes provided views of the changes in the activities of specific biological processes in renal cancer. Among the biological processes with a large proportion of up-regulated genes we found cell adhesion, signal transduction, and nucleotide metabolism. Down-regulated processes included small molecule transport, ion homeostasis, and oxygen and radical metabolism. Furthermore, we explored the feasibility of molecular diagnosis for renal cell tumors using cDNA microarrays on glass slides, investigating the association of transcription levels with tumor type, progression, and a putative prognostic variable. The experimental data is available from the GEO gene expression database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo; accession no. GSE3), and a comprehensive presentation of the results is available in the web supplement (http://www.dkfz-heidelberg.de/abt0840/whuber/rcc).
Transcription profiling using high-density cDNA arrays is a powerful method with the potential to improve cancer diagnosis and prognosis. The identification and classification of differentially transcribed genes, as described in our study, is the beginning of a more complete understanding of kidney cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Current gene intensity-dependent normalization methods, based on regression smoothing techniques, usually approach the two problems of reducing location bias and data rescaling without taking into account the censoring that is characteristic of certain gene expressions, produced by experimental measurement constraints or by previous normalization steps. Moreover, control of normalization procedures for balancing bias versus variance is often left to the user's experience. An approximate maximum likelihood procedure for fitting a model smoothing the dependences of log-fold gene expression differences on average gene intensities is presented. Central tendency and scaling factor are modeled by means of the B-spline smoothing technique. As an alternative to the outlier theory and robust methods, the approach presented looks for suitable distributional models, possibly generalizing the classical Gaussian and Laplacian assumptions, controlling for different types of censoring. The Bayesian information criterion is adopted for model selection. Distributional assumptions are tested using goodness-of-fit statistics and Monte Carlo evaluation. Randomization quantiles are proposed to produce normally distributed adjusted data. Three publicly available data sets are analyzed for demonstration purposes. Student's t error models reveal best performances in all of the data sets considered. More validating evidence is needed to evaluate the Asymmetric Laplace distribution, which showed interesting results in one data set.Computational Statistics & Data Analysis 03/2009; 53(5):1906-1922. DOI:10.1016/j.csda.2008.11.026 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Individuals that are exposed to malaria eventually develop immunity to the disease with one possible mechanism being the gradual acquisition of antibodies to the range of parasite variant surface antigens in their local area. Major antibody targets include the large and highly polymorphic Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) family of proteins. Here, we use a protein microarray containing 123 recombinant PfEMP1-DBLα domains (VAR) from Papua New Guinea to seroprofile 38 nonimmune children (<4 years) and 29 hyperimmune adults (≥15 years) from the same local area. The overall magnitude, prevalence and breadth of antibody response to VAR was limited at <2 years and 2-2.9 years, peaked at 3-4 years and decreased for adults compared with the oldest children. An increasing proportion of individuals recognized large numbers of VAR proteins (>20) with age, consistent with the breadth of response stabilizing with age. In addition, the antibody response was limited in uninfected children compared with infected children but was similar in adults irrespective of infection status. Analysis of the variant-specific response confirmed that the antibody signature expands with age and infection. This also revealed that the antibody signatures of the youngest children overlapped substantially, suggesting that they are exposed to the same subset of PfEMP1 variants. VAR proteins were either seroprevalent from early in life, (<3 years), from later in childhood (≥3 years) or rarely recognized. Group 2 VAR proteins (Cys2/MFK-REY+) were serodominant in infants (<1-year-old) and all other sequence subgroups became more seroprevalent with age. The results confirm that the anti-PfEMP1-DBLα antibody responses increase in magnitude and prevalence with age and further demonstrate that they increase in stability and complexity. The protein microarray approach provides a unique platform to rapidly profile variant-specific antibodies to malaria and suggests novel insights into the acquisition of immunity to malaria.Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 08/2011; 10(11):M111.008326. DOI:10.1074/mcp.M111.008326 · 7.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transcriptional signatures are an indispensible source of correlative information on disease-related molecular alterations on a genome-wide level. Numerous candidate genes involved in disease and in factors of predictive, as well as of prognostic, value have been deduced from such molecular portraits, e.g. in cancer. However, mechanistic insights into the regulatory principles governing global transcriptional changes are lagging behind extensive compilations of deregulated genes. To identify regulators of transcriptome alterations, we used an integrated approach combining transcriptional profiling of colorectal cancer cell lines treated with inhibitors targeting the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, computational prediction of regulatory elements in promoters of co-regulated genes, chromatin-based and functional cellular assays. We identified commonly co-regulated, proliferation-associated target genes that respond to the MAPK pathway. We recognized E2F and NFY transcription factor binding sites as prevalent motifs in those pathway-responsive genes and confirmed the predicted regulatory role of Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX1) by reporter gene, gel shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. We also validated the MAPK-dependent gene signature in colorectal cancers and provided evidence for the association of YBX1 with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients. This suggests that MEK/ERK-dependent, YBX1-regulated target genes are involved in executing malignant properties.PLoS Genetics 12/2010; 6(12):e1001231. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1001231 · 8.17 Impact Factor