Increased Constitutive c-Jun N-terminal Kinase Signaling in Mice Lacking Glutathione S-Transferase Pi

University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, United Kingdom
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 07/2003; 278(25):22243-9. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M301211200
Source: PubMed


Glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP) detoxifies electrophiles by catalyzing their conjugation with reduced glutathione. A second function
of this protein in cell defense has recently been proposed that is related to its ability to interact with c-Jun N-terminal
kinase (JNK). The present study aimed to determine whether this interaction results in increased constitutive JNK activity
in the absence of GSTP in GstP1/P2(–/–) mice and whether such a phenomenon leads to the up-regulation of genes that are relevant to cell defense. We found a significant
increase in constitutive JNK activity in the liver and lung of GstP1/P2–/– compared with GstP1/P2(+/+) mice. The greatest increase in constitutive JNK activity was observed in null liver and was accompanied by a significant
increase in activator protein-1 DNA binding activity (8-fold) and in the mRNA levels for the antioxidant protein heme oxygenase-1
compared with wild type. Furthermore UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A6 mRNA levels were significantly higher in the livers
of GstP1/P2(–/–) compared with GstP1/P2(+/+) mice, which correlated to a 2-fold increase in constitutive activity both in vitro and in vivo. There was no difference in the gene expression of other UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms, manganese superoxide dismutase,
microsomal epoxide hydrolase, or GSTA1 between GstP1/P2(–/–) and GstP1/P2(+/+) mice. Additionally there was no phenotypic difference in the induction of heme oxygenase-1 mRNA after acetaminophen administration.
This study not only demonstrates the role of GSTP as a direct inhibitor of JNK in vivo but also its role in regulating the constitutive expression of specific downstream molecular targets of the JNK signaling

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    • "In addition it has also been shown that GSTP protects against stress and cytokine signaling by regulating MAPK activation via protein–protein interactions as demonstrated for GSTP-JNK and GSTP-TRAF2 signaling (Xue et al., 2005; Wu et al., 2006). Notably, genetic deletion of murine Gstp1/p2 constitutively activates JNK/c-Jun in bone marrow, liver and lung (Elsby et al., 2003; Gate et al., 2004) but not in the urinary bladder (Pope et al., 2008). However, in the present study, we did not observe constitutively phosphorylated JNK and c-Jun in the GSTP-null heart, yet CY induced greater c-Jun activation in GSTP-null heart compared with WT (Fig. 3B), supporting the general model that GSTP prevents JNK-mediated phosphorylation of c-Jun (Adler and Pincus, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: High-dose chemotherapy regimens using cyclophosphamide (CY) are frequently associated with cardiotoxicity that could lead to myocyte damage and congestive heart failure. However, the mechanisms regulating the cardiotoxic effects of CY remain unclear. Because CY is converted to an unsaturated aldehyde acrolein, a toxic, reactive CY metabolite that induces extensive protein modification and myocardial injury, we examined the role of glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP), an acrolein-metabolizing enzyme, in CY cardiotoxicity in wild-type (WT) and GSTP-null mice. Treatment with CY (100-300 mg/kg) increased plasma levels of creatine kinase-MB isoform (CK·MB) and heart-to-body weight ratio to a significantly greater extent in GSTP-null than WT mice. In addition to modest yet significant echocardiographic changes following acute CY-treatment, GSTP insufficiency was associated with greater phosphorylation of c-Jun and p38 as well as greater accumulation of albumin and protein-acrolein adducts in the heart. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed likely prominent modification of albumin, kallikrein-1-related peptidase, myoglobin and transgelin-2 by acrolein in the hearts of CY-treated mice. Treatment with acrolein (low dose, 1-5 mg/kg) also led to increased heart-to-body weight ratio and myocardial contractility changes. Acrolein induced similar hypotension in GSTP-null and WT mice. GSTP-null mice also were more susceptible than WT mice to mortality associated with high-dose acrolein (10-20 mg/kg). Collectively, these results suggest that CY cardiotoxicity is regulated, in part, by GSTP, which prevents CY toxicity by detoxifying acrolein. Thus, humans with low cardiac GSTP levels or polymorphic forms of GSTP with low acrolein-metabolizing capacity may be more sensitive to CY toxicity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 04/2015; 285(2). DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2015.03.029 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    • "Although a useful neoplasia biomarker, it is not known whether increased GSTP1 expression directly influences carcinogenesis, or is simply a bystander effect, where expression of this highly inducible gene is increased as part of the adaptive response mounted by the neoplastic cell. In support of a direct role in carcinogenesis, however, GSTP1 inhibits the stress-inducible c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in vitro, and JNK activity is reduced in GSTP1 null mice (Adler et al, 1999; Yin et al, 2000; Elsby et al, 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer patients is frequently compromised by drug resistance, possibly due to altered drug metabolism. Platinum drugs are metabolised by glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), which is abundantly, but variably expressed in ovarian tumours. We have created novel ovarian tumour cell line models to investigate the extent to which differential GSTP1 expression influences chemosensitivity. Methods: Glutathione S-transferase P1 was stably deleted in A2780 and expression significantly reduced in cisplatin-resistant A2780DPP cells using Mission shRNA constructs, and MTT assays used to compare chemosensitivity to chemotherapy drugs used to treat ovarian cancer. Differentially expressed genes in GSTP1 knockdown cells were identified by Illumina HT-12 expression arrays and qRT–PCR analysis, and altered pathways predicted by MetaCore (GeneGo) analysis. Cell cycle changes were assessed by FACS analysis of PI-labelled cells and invasion and migration compared in quantitative Boyden chamber-based assays. Results: Glutathione S-transferase P1 knockdown selectively influenced cisplatin and carboplatin chemosensitivity (2.3- and 4.83-fold change in IC50, respectively). Cell cycle progression was unaffected, but cell invasion and migration was significantly reduced. We identified several novel GSTP1 target genes and candidate platinum chemotherapy response biomarkers. Conclusions: Glutathione S-transferase P1 has an important role in cisplatin and carboplatin metabolism in ovarian cancer cells. Inter-tumour differences in GSTP1 expression may therefore influence response to platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients.
    British Journal of Cancer 07/2014; 111(6). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2014.386 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    • "As shown in Fig. 3, the present patient possessed the Ile/Ile genotype. It is thought that the GSTP1-105Ile protein could enhance oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity through inhibition of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), whereas the Val variant shows higher JNK activity, thereby increasing the expression of genes involved in cellular defense, and thus possibly protecting the cells against platinum-induced toxicity (25). The association between the GSTP1 polymorphism and oxaliplatin efficacy and toxicity remains controversial. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neurotoxicity is one of the most frequent side-effects of oxaliplatin. Oxaliplatin-induced cumulative and dose-limiting neurotoxicity either results in dose reduction or decreases the patients' quality of life. However, the symptoms of neurotoxicity often vary among patients. The current study presents the case of a male with rectal cancer, who was administered a cumulative oxaliplatin dose of >5,000 mg/m(2) without developing neurotoxicity or allergic reactions. Consequently, this patient continued therapy with modified 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin treatment for four years, with stabilization of the disease. This case indicates that if oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy shows efficacy with no toxicity, the long-term administration of oxaliplatin would be effective and tolerable. Previously, the analysis of genomic polymorphisms in drug target genes has been important for explaining interindividual variations in the efficacy and toxicity of anti-cancer drugs. In the present patient, the glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene polymorphism, which is involved in the detoxification of platinum drugs, was analyzed. The genotype of the present case has been revealed as wild type (Ile/Ile) genotype. In addition, the associations between oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity and the GSTP1 polymorphism were also assessed. Certain studies have demonstrated that oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity occurs more frequently in patients with the Ile/Ile genotype, while others have demonstrated that those patients with the Val/Val or Ile/Val genotypes are more likely to develop neurotoxicity. Therefore, correlation between the GSTP1 polymorphism and oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity remains controversial. Overall, further development of individualized chemotherapy with an analysis of genomic polymorphisms in the drug target genes is required for the prophylaxis oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity.
    Oncology letters 05/2014; 7(5):1499-1502. DOI:10.3892/ol.2014.1890 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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