The cytosolic endopeptidase, thimet oligopeptidase, destroys antigenic peptides and limits the extent of MHC class I antigen presentation.
ABSTRACT Most antigenic peptides presented on MHC class I molecules are generated by proteasomes during protein breakdown. It is unknown whether these peptides are protected from destruction by cytosolic peptidases. In cytosolic extracts, most antigenic peptides are degraded by the metalloendopeptidase, thimet oligopeptidase (TOP). We therefore examined whether TOP destroys antigenic peptides in vivo. When TOP was overexpressed in cells, class I presentation of antigenic peptides was reduced. In contrast, TOP overexpression didn't reduce presentation of peptides generated in the endoplasmic reticulum or endosomes. Conversely, preventing TOP expression with siRNA enhanced presentation of antigenic peptides. TOP therefore plays an important role in vivo in degrading peptides released by proteasomes and is a significant factor limiting the extent of antigen presentation.
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ABSTRACT: Chagas' disease is a neglected infectious illness, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It remains a challenging health issue in Latin America, where it is endemic and so far there is no immunoprophylatic vaccine or satisfactory chemotherapic treatment for its chronic stage. The present work addressed the analysis of the plasma membrane (PM) subproteome from T. cruzi human-hosted life stages, trypomastigote and axenic amastigote, by two complementary PM protein enrichment techniques followed by identification using an LC-MS/MS approach. The results revealed an extensive repertoire of proteins in the PM subproteomes, including enzymes that might be suitable candidates for drug intervention. The comparison of the cell surface proteome among the life forms revealed some potentially stage-specific enzymes, although the majority was shared by both stages. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the vast majority of the identified proteins are membrane-derived and/or possess predicted transmembrane domains. They are mainly involved in host cell infection, protein adhesion, cell signaling and the modulation of mammalian host immune response. Several virulence factors and proteins potentially capable of acting at a number of metabolic pathways of the host and also to regulate cell differentiation of the parasite itself were also found.Journal of Proteome Research 06/2014; · 5.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PA28αβ is a γ-interferon-induced 11S complex that associates with the ends of the 20S proteasome and stimulates in vitro breakdown of small peptide substrates, but not proteins or ubiquitin-conjugated proteins. In cells, PA28 also exists in larger complexes along with the 19S particle, which allows ATP-dependent degradation of proteins; although in vivo a large fraction of PA28 is present as PA28αβ-20S particles whose exact biological functions are largely unknown. Although several lines of evidence strongly indicate that PA28αβ plays a role in MHC class I antigen presentation, the exact molecular mechanisms of this activity are still poorly understood. Herein, we review current knowledge about the biochemical and biological properties of PA28αβ and discuss recent findings concerning its role in modifying the spectrum of proteasome's peptide products, which are important to better understand the molecular mechanisms and biological consequences of PA28αβ activity.Biomolecules. 06/2014; 4(2):566-84.
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ABSTRACT: The degradation of HIV-derived proteins into epitopes displayed by MHC-I or MHC-II are the first events leading to the priming of HIV-specific immune responses and to the recognition of infected cells. Despite a wealth of information about peptidases involved in protein degradation, our knowledge of epitope presentation during HIV infection remains limited. Here we review current data on HIV protein degradation linking epitope production and immunodominance, viral evolution and impaired epitope presentation. We propose that an in-depth understanding of HIV antigen processing and presentation in relevant primary cells could be exploited to identify signatures leading to efficient or inefficient epitope presentation in HIV proteomes, and to improve the design of immunogens eliciting immune responses efficiently recognizing all infected cells.Viruses 08/2014; 6(8):3271-3292. · 3.28 Impact Factor