The Cytosolic Endopeptidase, Thimet Oligopeptidase, Destroys Antigenic Peptides and Limits the Extent of MHC Class I Antigen Presentation
ABSTRACT Most antigenic peptides presented on MHC class I molecules are generated by proteasomes during protein breakdown. It is unknown whether these peptides are protected from destruction by cytosolic peptidases. In cytosolic extracts, most antigenic peptides are degraded by the metalloendopeptidase, thimet oligopeptidase (TOP). We therefore examined whether TOP destroys antigenic peptides in vivo. When TOP was overexpressed in cells, class I presentation of antigenic peptides was reduced. In contrast, TOP overexpression didn't reduce presentation of peptides generated in the endoplasmic reticulum or endosomes. Conversely, preventing TOP expression with siRNA enhanced presentation of antigenic peptides. TOP therefore plays an important role in vivo in degrading peptides released by proteasomes and is a significant factor limiting the extent of antigen presentation.
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ABSTRACT: The degradation of HIV-derived proteins into epitopes displayed by MHC-I or MHC-II are the first events leading to the priming of HIV-specific immune responses and to the recognition of infected cells. Despite a wealth of information about peptidases involved in protein degradation, our knowledge of epitope presentation during HIV infection remains limited. Here we review current data on HIV protein degradation linking epitope production and immunodominance, viral evolution and impaired epitope presentation. We propose that an in-depth understanding of HIV antigen processing and presentation in relevant primary cells could be exploited to identify signatures leading to efficient or inefficient epitope presentation in HIV proteomes, and to improve the design of immunogens eliciting immune responses efficiently recognizing all infected cells.Viruses 08/2014; 6(8):3271-3292. DOI:10.3390/v6083271 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages (MPs), and monocytes are permissive to HIV. Whether they similarly process and present HIV epitopes to HIV-specific CD8 T cells is unknown despite the critical role of peptide processing and presentation for recognition and clearance of infected cells. Cytosolic peptidases degrade endogenous proteins originating from self or pathogens, exogenous Ags preprocessed in endolysosomes, thus shaping the peptidome available for endoplasmic reticulum translocation, trimming, and MHC-I presentation. In this study, we compared the capacity of DCs, MPs, and monocyte cytosolic extracts to produce epitope precursors and epitopes. We showed differences in the proteolytic activities and expression levels of cytosolic proteases between monocyte-derived DCs and MPs and upon maturation with LPS, R848, and CL097, with mature MPs having the highest activities. Using cytosol as a source of proteases to degrade epitope-containing HIV peptides, we showed by mass spectrometry that the degradation patterns of long peptides and the kinetics and amount of antigenic peptides produced differed among DCs, MPs, and monocytes. Additionally, variable intracellular stability of HIV peptides prior to loading onto MHC may accentuate the differences in epitope availability for presentation by MHC-I between these subsets. Differences in peptide degradation led to 2- to 25-fold differences in the CTL responses elicited by the degradation peptides generated in DCs, MPs, and monocytes. Differences in Ag-processing activities between these subsets might lead to variations in the timing and efficiency of recognition of HIV-infected cells by CTLs and contribute to the unequal capacity of HIV-specific CTLs to control viral load.The Journal of Immunology 09/2014; 193(9). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1400491 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mode of tumor cell death has significant effects on anti-tumor immunity. Although, previously it was thought that cell death is an inert effect, different investigators have clearly shown that dying tumors can attract, activate and mature professional antigen presenting cells and dendritic cells. In addition, others and we have shown that the type of tumor cell death not only controls the presence or absence of specific tumor antigens, but also can result in immunological responses ranging from immunosuppression to anti-tumor immunity. More importantly, it is possible to enhance anti-tumor immunity both in vitro and in vivo by targeting specific molecular mechanisms such as oligopeptidases and the proteasome. These studies not only extend our knowledge on basic immunological questions and the induction of anti-tumor immunity, but also have implications for all types of cancer treatments, in which rapid tumor cell death is induced. This review is a comprehensive summary of cell death and particularly necrosis and the pivotal role it plays in anti-tumor immunity.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 10/2014; 72(2). DOI:10.1007/s00018-014-1741-x · 5.86 Impact Factor