Article

Cytogenetics of multiple myeloma: interpretation of fluorescence in situ hybridization results.

Department of Haematology, Royal Free Medical School, London.
British Journal of Haematology (Impact Factor: 4.94). 04/2003; 120(6):944-52. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2141.2003.04172.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The cytogenetic picture in multiple myeloma (MM) is highly complex, from which non-random numerical and structural chromosomal changes have been identified. Specifically, translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH) at 14q32 and either monosomy or deletions of chromosome 13 have been reported in a significant number of patients from both cytogenetic and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies. Importantly, these abnormalities of chromosome 13 have recently been associated with a poor prognosis. In view of the highly complex nature of the karyotypes in MM patients, interphase FISH results may be difficult to interpret. In this study, cytogenetics and/or interphase FISH were carried out on bone marrow samples or purified plasma cells from 37 MM patients. Abnormal karyotypes, characterized by multiplex FISH (M-FISH) were found in 11 patients, all of which were highly complex. Interphase FISH revealed translocations involving the IGH locus in 16 (43%) patients. The IGH/cyclin D1 (CCND1) gene fusion characteristic of the translocation, t(11;14)(q13;q32), was seen in 12 (32%) of these patients and other rearrangements of IGH in four (11%) patients. Fourteen patients had additional copies of chromosome 11. Twenty patients (54%) had 13q14 deletions, 10 of whom also had t(11;14) or another IGH translocation. By comparing cytogenetic and FISH results, this study has revealed that significant chromosomal abnormalities might be hidden within highly complex karyotypes. Therefore, extreme caution is required in the interpretation of interphase FISH results in MM, particularly in relation to certain abnormalities, such as 13q14 deletions, which have an impact on prognosis.

1 Bookmark
 · 
112 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Deletion of 13q14.3 and a candidate gene KCNRG (potassium channel regulating gene) is the most frequent chromosomal abnormality in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and is a common finding in multiple myeloma (MM). KCNRG protein may interfere with the normal assembly of the K+ channel proteins causing the suppression of Kv currents. We aimed to examine possible role of KCNRG haploinsufficiency in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and MM cells. We performed detailed genomic analysis of the KCNRG locus; studied effects of the stable overexpression of KCNRG isoforms in RPMI-8226, HL-60, and LnCaP cells; and evaluated relative expression of its transcripts in various human lymphomas. Three MM cell lines and 35 CLL PBL samples were screened for KCNRG mutations. KCNRG exerts growth suppressive and pro-apoptotic effects in HL-60, LnCaP, and RPMI-8226 cells. Direct sequencing of KCNRG exons revealed point mutation delT in RPMI-8226 cell line. Levels of major isoform of KCNRG mRNA are lower in DLBL lymphomas compared to normal PBL samples, while levels of its minor mRNA are decreased across the broad range of the lymphoma types. The haploinsufficiency of KCNRG might be relevant to the progression of CLL and MM at least in a subset of patients.
    Tumor Biology 01/2010; 31(1):33-45. · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Historically, cytogenetic studies of plasma cell neoplasms have been hampered by the fact that terminally differentiated plasma cells do not proliferate well in vitro. Although the use of interphase FISH (iFISH) has greatly improved the ability to detect cytogenetic abnormalities, cases with low numbers of neoplastic cells often do not demonstrate abnormalities. Using a four-assay, nine-probe iFISH panel, we compared the abnormality detection rate for overnight unstimulated bone marrow cultures (ONC) to that for plasma-cell enriched fractions obtained with use of CD138-coated immunomagnetic beads (PCE). In the ONC, an abnormality was detected in 11 of 29 cases (38%); in the PCE, an abnormality was detected in 30 of 33 cases (91%). For 28 cases in which iFISH results from ONC were compared directly with PCE samples, the overall abnormality rate was 36% for ONC and 89% for PCE (P < 0.01). The conventional GTG-banded chromosome analysis revealed only 2 of 34 cases with an abnormal karyotype (6%); both cases were hyperdiploid. We conclude that the plasma cell enrichment step for iFISH should be incorporated into the routine cytogenetic work-up for all patients with plasma cell neoplasms.
    Cancer genetics and cytogenetics 03/2009; 189(2):112-7. · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The microRNAs miR-15a and miR-16-1 are downregulated in multiple tumor types and are frequently deleted in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. Despite their abundance in most cells the transcriptional regulation of miR-15a/16-1 remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that the putative tumor suppressor DLEU2 acts as a host gene of these microRNAs. Mature miR-15a/miR-16-1 are produced in a Drosha-dependent process from DLEU2 and binding of the Myc oncoprotein to two alterative DLEU2 promoters represses both the host gene transcript and levels of mature miR-15a/miR-16-1. In line with a functional role for DLEU2 in the expression of the microRNAs, the miR-15a/miR-16-1 locus is retained in four CLL cases that delete both promoters of this gene and expression analysis indicates that this leads to functional loss of mature miR-15a/16-1. We additionally show that DLEU2 negatively regulates the G1 Cyclins E1 and D1 through miR-15a/miR-16-1 and provide evidence that these oncoproteins are subject to miR-15a/miR-16-1-mediated repression under normal conditions. We also demonstrate that DLEU2 overexpression blocks cellular proliferation and inhibits the colony-forming ability of tumor cell lines in a miR-15a/miR-16-1-dependent way. Together the data illuminate how inactivation of DLEU2 promotes cell proliferation and tumor progression through functional loss of miR-15a/miR-16-1.
    Experimental Cell Research 08/2009; 315(17):2941-52. · 3.56 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
0 Downloads