Cognitive aspects of chronic depression

Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta 30303, USA.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology (Impact Factor: 4.86). 03/2003; 112(1):72-80. DOI: 10.1037//0021-843X.112.1.72
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous research on chronic depression has focused on its link with other mood disorders and Axis II personality disorders. However, there are few data examining whether the cognitive perspective applies to this condition. In this cross-sectional study, 42 outpatients with chronic depression were compared with 27 outpatients with nonchronic major depressive disorder and 24 never psychiatrically ill controls on cognitive variables thought to be related to vulnerability to depression (e.g., dysfunctional attitudes, attributional style, a ruminative response style, and maladaptive core beliefs). Both depressed groups were more elevated than a never-ill comparison group. However, chronically depressed individuals were generally more elevated on measures of cognitive variables than those with major depressive disorders even after controlling for mood state and personality disorder symptoms.

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Available from: Lawrence P Riso, May 14, 2014
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    • "l information processing in a dysfunctional way , which gives rise to selective information processing that is congruent with its content and minimizes information that is not consistent with the schema . It has been suggested that EMS might be at the core of BPD and its co - occurring Axis I disorders such as depression ( Jovev & Jackson , 2004 ; Riso et al . , 2003 ; Sempertegui , Karreman , Arntz , & Bekker , 2013 ; Young et al . , 2003 ) . EMS are unconditional schema - level representations regarding attachment to others , autonomy , competence , sense of identity , ability to express valid needs and emotions , limit - setting capacity , and self - control that develop dur - ing childhood or ad"
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    ABSTRACT: Disturbed interpersonal relationships specific to borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggest biased processing of social information. The goal of this study was to examine alterations in mental state decoding (MSD) and their associations with early maladaptive schemas (EMS) that may lead to the misinterpretation of incoming information. In addition, the authors' aim was to evaluate the effects of a co-occurring current major depressive episode (MDE) on the MSD performance of BPD patients. Seventy-eight BPD patients (34 with MDE) and 76 matched healthy controls (HC) were assessed for Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the level of EMS. The authors found that impairment in the total RMET performance, as well as specific impairment regarding the recognition of positive and neutral items, was associated with EMS, and enhanced vigilance to negative mental states was characteristic to BPD with MDE. Results suggest that MSD ability is altered in two independent ways in BPD.
    Journal of Personality Disorders 06/2014; 29(2):1-18. DOI:10.1521/pedi_2014_28_146 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    • "Findings from the second hypothesis test showed that there are significant differences between early maladaptive schemas in patients with dysthymic disorder and those with major depression. These findings are fully consistent with findings of Riso et al., (2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) or fundamental beliefs that underpin stable and trait-like psychological disorders are chronic and relapsing. In, active schemas in dysthymic patients with major depression have been compared with healthy individuals.The purpose of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas (Young, 2003, 1990) in dysthymic patients with major depression and healthy subjects. Method: For this study, 46 patients with major depression and 20 non-hospitalized patients with dysthymic during the year who referred to medical centers and clinics in Kermanshah (a city in West of Iran) were selected through structured interviews and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and 66 patients with mild problems who referred to the clinic were considered as control group. 15 early maladaptive schemas through Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF) were measured. Results: Analysis of variance showed that maladaptive schemas was different in the three groups. Maladaptive schemas of emotional deprivation, social isolation, defectiveness/ shame, and failure in patients with dysthymic, and maladaptive schemas of Self-sacrifice, and unrelenting standards/ hypercriticalness, entitlement/grandiosity, were active in patients with major depression. Healthy people were not active in any schema incompatibility. Maladaptive schemas in patients with dysthymic were more than the other two groups. Conclusion: In depression group, all early maladaptive schemas except abandonment and dependence / incompetence schemas, indicated higher scores. The evidence shows that schemas of emotional deprivation, social isolation, failure, and defectiveness/shame are specific keys for dysthymic disorder and emotional inhibition, and unrelenting standards are the keys for major depressive disorder.
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    • "A possible explanation for such inconsistencies comes from the use of different samples, such as groups with a wide range of comorbidities, mixed clinical samples (mood and anxiety disorders), and nonclinical groups [9, 13–17]. In fact, when samples with different psychopathological conditions (e.g., chronic and nonchronic depression and bulimia nervosa) were compared, results showed differences in their EMSs [18] [19]. Here, we propose that another possible explanation for such contradictory findings may derive from the simplistic view of depression as a unitary phenomenon. "
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    ABSTRACT: Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are cognitive patterns resulting from unmet core emotional needs in childhood that have been linked to the development of psychopathology. As depression is a multifaceted phenomenon, we hypothesized that specific dysphoric symptoms would be predicted by different EMSs. Four hundred and fifty-six participants completed a measure of EMSs (Young Schema Questionnaire) and reported on the severity of the symptoms of criterion A for major depression in DSM-IV during the occurrence of a dysphoric episode in the previous 12 months. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate the predictive power of the EMSs for the severity of each specific depressive symptom. When controlling for gender and current levels of depression, specific symptoms were predicted by different EMSs: sadness by Negativity/Pessimism; anhedonia by Failure; self-harm by Emotional Deprivation and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness; worthlessness by Failure and Negativity/Pessimism; psychomotor retardation/restlessness by Vulnerability to Harm or Illness and Entitlement/Grandiosity; and poor concentration by Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline. The more physical symptoms of fatigue, insomnia/hypersomnia, and appetite loss/appetite gain were not predicted by any of the EMSs. Although the cross-sectional design of the study does not allow for conclusions about the direction of effects, results suggest that depression is not a unitary phenomenon and provide a possible explanation for previous inconsistent findings.
    The Scientific World Journal 01/2014; 2014:231965. DOI:10.1155/2014/231965 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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