Cognitive aspects of chronic depression.
ABSTRACT Previous research on chronic depression has focused on its link with other mood disorders and Axis II personality disorders. However, there are few data examining whether the cognitive perspective applies to this condition. In this cross-sectional study, 42 outpatients with chronic depression were compared with 27 outpatients with nonchronic major depressive disorder and 24 never psychiatrically ill controls on cognitive variables thought to be related to vulnerability to depression (e.g., dysfunctional attitudes, attributional style, a ruminative response style, and maladaptive core beliefs). Both depressed groups were more elevated than a never-ill comparison group. However, chronically depressed individuals were generally more elevated on measures of cognitive variables than those with major depressive disorders even after controlling for mood state and personality disorder symptoms.
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ABSTRACT: Disturbed interpersonal relationships specific to borderline personality disorder (BPD) suggest biased processing of social information. The goal of this study was to examine alterations in mental state decoding (MSD) and their associations with early maladaptive schemas (EMS) that may lead to the misinterpretation of incoming information. In addition, the authors' aim was to evaluate the effects of a co-occurring current major depressive episode (MDE) on the MSD performance of BPD patients. Seventy-eight BPD patients (34 with MDE) and 76 matched healthy controls (HC) were assessed for Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) and the level of EMS. The authors found that impairment in the total RMET performance, as well as specific impairment regarding the recognition of positive and neutral items, was associated with EMS, and enhanced vigilance to negative mental states was characteristic to BPD with MDE. Results suggest that MSD ability is altered in two independent ways in BPD.Journal of Personality Disorders 06/2014; · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives Worry and depressive rumination have been found to be involved in the onset and maintenance of a range of psychological disorders. The development of brief screening measures for excessive worry and depressive rumination is therefore desirable to facilitate the assessment of worry and rumination in prevention and treatment settings where routine administration of full questionnaires is not practical due to time-related constraints.Design and methodsUsing the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS) as gold standard starting points, brief versions of these measures were developed in a large sample of adolescents (N = 1,952) and results were cross-validated in two independent samples (N = 1,954; N = 457).ResultsThe brief versions demonstrated acceptable to high internal consistency (brief PSWQ: α = .84–.91; brief RRS: α = .78–.81) and correlated highly with the full questionnaires (brief PSWQ: r = .91–.94; brief RRS: r = .88–.91). In addition, they showed high sensitivity (brief PSWQ: .90–.92; brief RRS: .90–.93), and high specificity (brief PSWQ: .88–.90; brief RRS: .80–.87) to detect excessive worry and rumination. The validity of the brief measures was further supported by demonstrating that the brief measures showed similar differences in scores between males and females as the full measures as well as substantial relationships to other measures of repetitive negative thinking and symptom measures of anxiety and depression. Finally, the brief measures predicted future symptoms of anxiety and depression.Conclusions The brief versions of the PSWQ and RRS are time-efficient and valid instruments for the screening of worry and depressive rumination. Their use in clinical practice is recommended to inform treatment and/or to select individuals at risk for development of psychological disorders who may benefit from preventive interventions.Practitioner pointsThe newly developed brief PSWQ and brief RRS are valid, internally reliable measures that show high diagnostic efficiency to detect excessive worry and depressive rumination.The brief PSWQ and brief RRS are time-efficient instruments that can be used to determine whether a focus on reducing worry and depressive rumination during treatment is indicated.The brief PSWQ and brief RRS can be used for large-scale screening purposes to identify individuals eligible for targeted prevention programmes.A potential limitation is that items of the brief RRS have depressive item content which may inflate the observed association with depression.Future research is needed to assess the quality of the brief PSWQ and the brief RRS in broader community and clinical samples.British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 04/2014;
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ABSTRACT: The present investigation employed a meta-analysis of 179 correlational studies and 37 clinical group comparison studies to examine the association between rumination and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Meta-analytic correlations revealed moderate associations between rumination and symptoms of anxiety and depression that were strongest for brooding and emotion-driven rumination. Symptoms of anxiety and depression also had significant independent effects on overall rumination and emotion-driven rumination. However, worry partially accounted for the associations of both depression and anxiety with rumination. Those with mood and anxiety disorders also reported more rumination than controls, an effect that was amplified by increased comorbidity. Those with mood disorders reported significantly more rumination than those with anxiety disorders. The implications of these findings for a transdiagnostic view of rumination are discussed.Clinical Psychology Science and Practice 09/2013; 20(3). · 2.92 Impact Factor