Cognitive aspects of chronic depression.
ABSTRACT Previous research on chronic depression has focused on its link with other mood disorders and Axis II personality disorders. However, there are few data examining whether the cognitive perspective applies to this condition. In this cross-sectional study, 42 outpatients with chronic depression were compared with 27 outpatients with nonchronic major depressive disorder and 24 never psychiatrically ill controls on cognitive variables thought to be related to vulnerability to depression (e.g., dysfunctional attitudes, attributional style, a ruminative response style, and maladaptive core beliefs). Both depressed groups were more elevated than a never-ill comparison group. However, chronically depressed individuals were generally more elevated on measures of cognitive variables than those with major depressive disorders even after controlling for mood state and personality disorder symptoms.
SourceAvailable from: Practice in Clinical Psychology Journal[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) or fundamental beliefs that underpin stable and trait-like psychological disorders are chronic and relapsing. In, active schemas in dysthymic patients with major depression have been compared with healthy individuals.The purpose of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas (Young, 2003, 1990) in dysthymic patients with major depression and healthy subjects. Method: For this study, 46 patients with major depression and 20 non-hospitalized patients with dysthymic during the year who referred to medical centers and clinics in Kermanshah (a city in West of Iran) were selected through structured interviews and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and 66 patients with mild problems who referred to the clinic were considered as control group. 15 early maladaptive schemas through Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF) were measured. Results: Analysis of variance showed that maladaptive schemas was different in the three groups. Maladaptive schemas of emotional deprivation, social isolation, defectiveness/ shame, and failure in patients with dysthymic, and maladaptive schemas of Self-sacrifice, and unrelenting standards/ hypercriticalness, entitlement/grandiosity, were active in patients with major depression. Healthy people were not active in any schema incompatibility. Maladaptive schemas in patients with dysthymic were more than the other two groups. Conclusion: In depression group, all early maladaptive schemas except abandonment and dependence / incompetence schemas, indicated higher scores. The evidence shows that schemas of emotional deprivation, social isolation, failure, and defectiveness/shame are specific keys for dysthymic disorder and emotional inhibition, and unrelenting standards are the keys for major depressive disorder.
02/2015; 4. DOI:10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.01.020