Left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) treatment of depression in bipolar affective disorder: a pilot study of acute safety and efficacy.
ABSTRACT Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to improve depressive symptoms. We designed and carried out the following left prefrontal rTMS study to determine the safety, feasibility, and potential efficacy of using TMS to treat the depressive symptoms of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD).
We recruited and enrolled 23 depressed BPAD patients (12 BPI depressed state, nine BPII depressed state, two BPI mixed state). Patients were randomly assigned to receive either daily left prefrontal rTMS (5 Hz, 110% motor threshold, 8 sec on, 22 sec off, over 20 min) or placebo each weekday morning for 2 weeks. Motor threshold and subjective rating scales were obtained daily, and blinded Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and Young Mania Rating Scales (YMRS) were obtained weekly.
Stimulation was well tolerated with no significant adverse events and with no induction of mania. We failed to find a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the number of antidepressant responders (>50% decline in HRSD or HRSD <10 - 4 active and 4 sham) or the mean HRSD change from baseline over the 2 weeks (t = -0.22, p = 0.83). Active rTMS, compared with sham rTMS, produced a trend but not statistically significant greater improvement in daily subjective mood ratings post-treatment (t = 1.58, p = 0.13). The motor threshold did not significantly change after 2 weeks of active treatment (t = 1.11, p = 0.28).
Daily left prefrontal rTMS appears safe in depressed BPAD subjects, and the risk of inducing mania in BPAD subjects on medications is small. We failed to find statistically significant TMS clinical antidepressant effects greater than sham. Further studies are needed to fully investigate the potential role, if any, of TMS in BPAD depression.
SourceAvailable from: Karina Karolina Kedzior[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: According to a narrative review of 13 meta-analyses (published up to 2010), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has a moderate, short-term antidepressant effect in the treatment of major depression. The aim of the current study was to reanalyse the data from these 13 meta-analyses with a uniform meta-analytical procedure and to investigate predictors of such an antidepressant response. A total of 40 double-blind, randomised, sham-controlled trials with parallel designs, utilising rTMS of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the treatment of major depression, was included in the current meta-analysis. The studies were conducted in 15 countries on 1583 patients and published between 1997-2008. Depression severity was measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, or Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale at baseline and after the last rTMS. A random-effects model with the inverse-variance weights was used to compute the overall mean weighted effect size, Cohen's d. There was a significant and moderate reduction in depression scores from baseline to final, favouring rTMS over sham (overall d = -.54, 95% CI: -.68, -.41, N = 40 studies). Predictors of such a response were investigated in the largest group of studies (N = 32) with high-frequency (>1 Hz) left (HFL) rTMS. The antidepressant effect of HFL rTMS was present univariately in studies with patients receiving antidepressants (at stable doses or started concurrently with rTMS), with treatment-resistance, and with unipolar (or bipolar) depression without psychotic features. Univariate meta-regressions showed that depression scores were significantly lower after HFL rTMS in studies with higher proportion of female patients. There was little evidence for publication bias in the current analysis. Daily rTMS (with any parameters) has a moderate, short-term antidepressant effect in studies published up to 2008. The clinical efficacy of HFL rTMS may be better in female patients not controlling for any other study parameters.10/2014; 2(1):39. DOI:10.1186/s40359-014-0039-y
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ABSTRACT: Background. Bipolar depression (BD) is a prevalent condition, with poor therapeutic options and a high degree of refractoriness. This justifies the development of novel treatment strategies, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) that showed promising results in unipolar depression. Methods. We describe a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded trial using tDCS for refractory, acutely symptomatic BD (the bipolar depression electrical treatment trial, BETTER). Sixty patients will be enrolled and assessed with clinical and neuropsychological tests. The primary outcome is change (over time and across groups) in the scores of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (17 items). Biological markers such as blood neurotrophins and interleukins, genetic polymorphisms, heart rate variability, and motor cortical excitability will be assessed. Twelve anodal-left/cathodal-right 2 mA tDCS sessions over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex will be performed in 6 weeks. Results. In the pilot phase, five patients received active tDCS and were double-blindly assessed, two presenting clinical response. TDCS was well-tolerated, with no changes in cognitive scores. Conclusion. This upcoming clinical trial will address the efficacy of tDCS for BD on different degrees of refractoriness. The evaluation of biological markers will also help in understanding the pathophysiology of BD and the mechanisms of action of tDCS.Neural Plasticity 01/2015; 2015:684025. DOI:10.1155/2015/684025 · 3.60 Impact Factor
Dataset: Kedzior Reitz 2014 rTMS appendix