Left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) treatment of depression in bipolar affective disorder: A pilot study of acute safety and efficacy

Brain Stimulation Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston 29425, USA.
Bipolar Disorders (Impact Factor: 4.89). 02/2003; 5(1):40-7. DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-5618.2003.00011.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to improve depressive symptoms. We designed and carried out the following left prefrontal rTMS study to determine the safety, feasibility, and potential efficacy of using TMS to treat the depressive symptoms of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD).
We recruited and enrolled 23 depressed BPAD patients (12 BPI depressed state, nine BPII depressed state, two BPI mixed state). Patients were randomly assigned to receive either daily left prefrontal rTMS (5 Hz, 110% motor threshold, 8 sec on, 22 sec off, over 20 min) or placebo each weekday morning for 2 weeks. Motor threshold and subjective rating scales were obtained daily, and blinded Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and Young Mania Rating Scales (YMRS) were obtained weekly.
Stimulation was well tolerated with no significant adverse events and with no induction of mania. We failed to find a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the number of antidepressant responders (>50% decline in HRSD or HRSD <10 - 4 active and 4 sham) or the mean HRSD change from baseline over the 2 weeks (t = -0.22, p = 0.83). Active rTMS, compared with sham rTMS, produced a trend but not statistically significant greater improvement in daily subjective mood ratings post-treatment (t = 1.58, p = 0.13). The motor threshold did not significantly change after 2 weeks of active treatment (t = 1.11, p = 0.28).
Daily left prefrontal rTMS appears safe in depressed BPAD subjects, and the risk of inducing mania in BPAD subjects on medications is small. We failed to find statistically significant TMS clinical antidepressant effects greater than sham. Further studies are needed to fully investigate the potential role, if any, of TMS in BPAD depression.

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    • "affective disorders ( 1 Hz , 15 days , 420 daily pulses ) and were associated with clinical response ( Pallanti et al . , 2012 ) . The majority of the studies ( 10 in total : 8 DLPFC ; 2 TC ) did not reveal any changes in RMT independent of the treatment frequency , number of daily pulses , and treatment days , e . g . , ( Dolberg et al . , 2002 ; Nahas et al . , 2003 ; Ahmed et al . , 2012 ) . Within these 10 studies , sub - group - dependent changes of RMT ( Pretalli et al . , 2012 ) and sub - groups with low and high variability in RMT ( Zarkowski et al . , 2009 ) were reported . For cerebellar stimulation , three studies investigated the effects of different TMS protocols ( rTMS and TBS ) on RMT "
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    ABSTRACT: Motor cortex excitability can be measured by single-and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can induce neuroplastic effects in stimulated and in functionally connected cortical regions. Due to its ability to non-invasively modulate cortical activity, rTMS has been investigated for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, such studies revealed a high variability of both clinical and neuronal effects induced by rTMS. In order to better elucidate this meta-plasticity, rTMS-induced changes in motor cortex excitability have been monitored in various studies in a pre-post stimulation design. Here, we give a literature review of studies investigating motor cortex excitability changes as a neuronal marker for rTMS effects over non-motor cortical areas. A systematic literature review in April 2014 resulted in 29 articles in which motor cortex excitability was assessed before and after rTMS over non-motor areas. The majority of the studies focused on the stimulation of one of three separate cortical areas: the prefrontal area (17 studies), the cerebellum (8 studies), or the temporal cortex (3 studies). One study assessed the effects of multi-site rTMS. Most studies investigated healthy controls but some also stimulated patients with neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., affective disorders, tinnitus). Methods and findings of the identified studies were highly variable showing no clear systematic pattern of interaction of non-motor rTMS with measures of motor cortex excitability. Based on the available literature, the measurement of motor cortex excitability changes before and after non-motor rTMS has only limited value in the investigation of rTMS related meta-plasticity as a neuronal state or as a trait marker for neuropsychiatric diseases. Our results do not suggest that there are systematic alterations of cortical excitability changes during rTMS treatment, which calls into question the practice of readjusting the stimulation intensity according to the motor threshold over the course of the treatment.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 07/2015; 9. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00416 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    • "Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), which can noninvasively stimulate a specific area of the brain cortex, is widely used for the treatment of various psychological diseases. In particular, stimulation of the prefrontal area with rTMS has been proven effective in patients with depression [8]. rTMS of the auditory cortex has shown a beneficial effect for the treatment of chronic tinnitus [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Conclusion: The study showed that combined repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the auditory cortex and prefrontal cortex has more benefit than rTMS on the auditory cortex alone for tinnitus control in patients with depression. Further studies for the most optimal combination of stimulation on both areas are needed. Objective: Recent studies suggest that the neuronal network changes of chronic tinnitus are beyond the auditory pathway. There is increasing evidences for the application of rTMS on multiple brain cortices in addition to the auditory cortex for the treatment of tinnitus. Sequential rTMS was performed on the auditory cortex alone as well as the auditory cortex combined with prefrontal cortex in patients with both chronic tinnitus and depression. Methods: Patients who presented with chronic tinnitus of more than 1 year were enrolled in the present study (seven males, four females; mean age 54 years). To select the site for the rTMS, PET CT was performed. Patients received the first rTMS on the primary auditory cortex for 5 days and on the primary auditory cortex and prefrontal cortex in the second application after tinnitus relapse. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), visual analog scale (VAS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were evaluated before and after rTMS. Results: The mean THI score of the eight patients with depression changed from 77.5 ± 15 to 61.8 ± 20.1 after the second rTMS. There was statistical significance only for the second rTMS. The VAS score changed from 8.6 ± 1.6 to 6.3 ± 1.8 after the first rTMS and from 7.6 ± 2.4 to 4.6 ± 2.7 after the second rTMS, showing statistically significant changes both times. The THI changes after the second rTMS were greater than after the first rTMS, and the changes in VAS score showed a similar pattern. The changes in BDI score, which indicates the severity of depression, showed a variable pattern after rTMS. Patients with mild depression (10≤ BDI score <16, n = 4) showed significant improvement of THI with the second combined rTMS (ΔTHI = 24.5) as compared with the first rTMS on the auditory area (ΔTHI = 6). In contrast, combined rTMS did not show any better improvement on THI (ΔTHI = 6.5) than the first rTMS on the auditory cortex (ΔTHI = 7) in patients without depression (BDI <10, n = 3) and patients with moderate to severe depression (BDI ≥16, n = 4).
    Acta oto-laryngologica 02/2013; 133(6). DOI:10.3109/00016489.2012.763181 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    • "A follow-up assessment was stabilizers valproic acid or carbamazepine. There was no signifi cant decrease in the primary outcome measure which was the change from baseline in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores (Nahas et al. 2003). In comparison to the sham condition , however, the results of the treatment arm indicated a trend towards an improvement in moodrelated symptoms. "
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    ABSTRACT: The H1-Coil is a novel transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) device capable of inducing a magnetic field with a deeper and wider distribution than standard coils. This pilot study evaluated the safety and feasibility of the H1-Coil as adjuvant treatment for bipolar depression (BPD). Nineteen patients diagnosed as having BPD and under treatment with psychotropic medication were enrolled in the study. They received daily prefrontal repetitive TMS (rTMS: 20 Hz, 2 s on, 20 s off, totaling 1680 stimuli) every weekday for four consecutive weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-24) score a week after the last treatment session. A significant mean decrease of 12.9 points in the HDRS-24 scale (P< 0.001) was found. Response rate was 63.2% and remission rate was 52.6%. Treatment was well tolerated in terms of headache and overall discomfort, and there were no significant change in cognitive functioning or mood switches. One patient had a short induced generalized seizure without complications. An add-on H-coil rTMS treatment protocol in BPD subjects indicated improvement in bipolar depression symptoms. Sham-control studies to further determine the efficacy and safety of the H-Coil for BPD are warranted.
    The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 03/2011; 12(2):119-26. DOI:10.3109/15622975.2010.510893 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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