"Functional" surgery in subungual melanoma.
ABSTRACT Subungual melanomas represent approximately 2% to 3% of cutaneous melanomas in White populations. Complete or partial amputation proximal to the distal interphalangeal joint of the digits has been suggested. Recently, we introduced for acral melanomas, similar to lentigo maligna melanoma, limited excision and complete histology of excisional margins (three-dimensional histology).
To evaluate the prognostic relevance of clinical parameters and different surgical management in patients with subungual melanoma.
From 1980 to 1999, subungual melanoma was diagnosed in 62 of 3,960 stage I and II melanoma patients (1.6%) of the melanoma registry of the Department of Dermatology (University of Tuebingen). A retrospective comparative analysis of two treatment groups was performed: Thirty-one patients had an amputation in or proximal to the distal interphalangeal joint (median follow-up of 55 months), and 31 patients had "functional" surgery with local excision of the tumor and only partial resection of the distal phalanx (median follow-up of 54 months).
In the univariate analysis, the level of invasion (P=0.0059), ulceration (P=0.0024), and tumor thickness (P=0.0004) were significant prognostic factors for recurrence-free survival but not for survival. In a multivariate analysis, only lower tumor thickness and a reduced level of amputation were independent significant prognostic parameters for recurrence-free survival (P=0.035 and P=0.0069). Patients with an amputation in or proximal to the distal interphalangeal joint did not fare better than patients with less radical "functional" surgery.
Limited excision with partial resection of the distal phalanx only and three-dimensional histology to assure tumor-free resection margins give better cosmetic and functional results and do not negatively affect the prognosis of patients with subungual melanoma.
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of malignant melanoma is much lower in the Japanese than in caucasians. However, amongst the various types of malignant melanoma, the subungual and periungual sites are commonly found in the Japanese. One hundred and fifty-one cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma were seen over a 25-year period at our hospital. We found that, in 34 patients (23%), the subungual region was involved, a high frequency for one institution. We have analysed these patients and looked at their treatment. The finger nails were affected in 21 cases (62%) and the toe nails in 13 cases (38%). The thumb nails or great toe nails were affected in 25 of the 34 patients (73%). In 25 patients, histopathological features of acral lentiginous melanoma were found, with four cases of superficial spreading melanoma and five of nodular amelanotic melanoma. Of the latter group, four mimicked fibrous histiocytic tumour, and one was a desmoplastic malignant melanoma. The proportion of patients presenting with stage III disease decreased after 1982, with a corresponding increase in patients whose tumour thickness was less than 4 mm (stage II). Concurrently, the prognosis for subungual malignant melanoma improved. The 5-year survival rate in each of the periods 1969-82 and 1983-93 was 53 and 87%, respectively. This is similar to that found in plantar malignant melanoma and is felt to be due to a greater public awareness of the condition and to the introduction of effective chemotherapy (the DTIC-AC nitrosurea-vincristine (DAV) regimen). Although the frequency of malignant melanoma is rather low in the Japanese, our data indicate that there is a high incidence of subungual malignant melanoma. Public awareness of the early stage of malignant melanoma seems to have improved prognosis.British Journal of Dermatology 04/1996; 134(3):383-7. · 3.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Subungual melanoma is rare and experience in treating this condition with isolated limb perfusion is limited. Between 1985 and 1990, 24 patients were treated by digital amputation and isolated limb perfusion with melphalan and mild hyperthermia. The disease was staged according to the M.D. Anderson classification: stage I (17 patients), stage IIIA (one), stage IIIB (two) and stage IIIAB (four). Thirteen lesions were on the foot and 11 on the hand. Seven patients have developed locoregional recurrence. The estimated overall 2- and 5-year probabilities of survival were 77 and 46 per cent respectively, while for disease-free survival the rates were 58 and 51 per cent. When these results were compared retrospectively with those in 111 patients treated by amputation alone, no significant difference in survival was demonstrated. This experience suggests that isolated limb perfusion with melphalan and mild hyperthermia confers no additional survival benefit over appropriate surgery.British Journal of Surgery 11/1995; 82(10):1343-5. · 4.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One hundred eight-five patients with acral melanoma treated since 1972 were reviewed. These included 53 subungual lesions, 123 plantar lesions, and 9 palmar lesions. Eighty percent presented with stage I disease. Mean age was 57 years. Males outnumbered females 1.1:1. Seventeen percent (17%) were blacks. Actuarial 10-year survival was 58% for stage I patients and 35% for stage II patients. Univariate Cox regression analyses identified 5 prognostic variables affecting survival: stage at diagnosis (P less than 0.001), race (P less than 0.001), ulceration (P = 0.012), Clark's level (P = 0.014), and thickness of the primary lesion (P = 0.013). Factors unrelated to survival included sex of the patient, site (volar vs. subungual), histology, and treatment with amputation. Multivariate analysis for patients with stage I lesions identified race (P = 0.001) and ulceration (P = 0.018) as significant variables, with thickness approaching significance (P = 0.094). In an additional series of 71 patients with melanomas arising from extremity sites near the junction of glabrous and non-glabrous skin, survival was significantly poorer for those arising from glabrous skin (P = 0.024), and reflects a higher incidence of metastatic disease at diagnosis. Specific active immunotherapy was the principal adjuvant used for these patients, and survival was comparable to that reported with regional perfusion therapy. Acral melanoma a) has a strong racial predilection, b) carries a grave prognosis, and c) arises from glabrous skin. It is a clinical entity distinct from other extremity melanomas. Surgical management with either wide excision or amputation is appropriate for the primary lesion.Journal of Surgical Oncology 11/1990; 45(2):91-8. · 2.64 Impact Factor