Amelogenin interacts with cytokeratin-5 in ameloblasts during enamel growth
ABSTRACT The enamel protein amelogenin binds to GlcNAc (Ravindranath, R. M. H., Moradian-Oldak, R., and Fincham, A.G. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 2464-2471) and to the GlcNAc-mimicking peptide (GMp) (Ravindranath, R. M. H., Tam, W., Nguyen, P., and Fincham, A. G. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 39654-39661). The GMp motif in the N-terminal region of the cytokeratin 14 of ameloblasts binds to trityrosyl motif peptide (ATMP) of amelogenin (Ravindranath, R. M. H., Tam, W., Bringas, P., Santos, V., and Fincham, A. G. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 36586 - 36597). K14 (Type I) pairs with K5 (Type II) in basal epithelial cells; GlcNAc-acylated K5 is identified in ameloblasts. Dosimetric analysis showed the binding affinity of amelogenin to K5 and to GlcNAc-acylated-positive control, ovalbumin. The specific binding of [3H]ATMP with K5 or ovalbumin was confirmed by Scatchard analysis. [3H]ATMP failed to bind to K5 after removal of GlcNAc. Blocking K5 with ATMP abrogates the K5-amelogenin interaction. K5 failed to bind to ATMP when the third proline was substituted with threonine, as in some cases of human X-linked amelogenesis imperfecta or when tyrosyl residues were substituted with phenylalanine. Confocal laser scan microscopic observations on ameloblasts during postnatal (PN) growth of the teeth showed that the K5-amelogenin complex migrated from the cytoplasm to the periphery (on PN day 1) and accumulated at the apical region on day 3. Secretion of amelogenin commences from day 1. K5, similar to K14, may play a role of chaperone during secretion of amelogenin. Upon secretion of amelogenin, K5 pairs with K14. Pairing of K5 and K14 commences on day 3 and ends on day 9. The pairing of K5 and K14 marks the end of secretion of amelogenin.
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ABSTRACT: Frequency of imperfect amelogenesis (IA) varies in different world populations. There is no information on the frequency of this entity in Colombia. This report informs the consanguinity in 3 cases of IA, the mother 36 years old and her two children of 8 and 15 years old. The same condition was found in 4 mother's relatives. This corroborates a hereditary pattern of this condition. The initial treatment for these patients is preventive, controlling them periodically and keeping in mind the appropriate handling of oral hygiene habits. A balanced diet poor in sugar or cariogenic agents and frequent teeth fluorination are the techniques to strengthen enamel traces. Later on these patients must be rehabilitated to recover both aesthetic and teeth functions.
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ABSTRACT: The primary sequences of human and mouse tuftelin are 89% identical. Both proteins comprise 390 amino acids and produce an acidic protein with an isoelectric point of 5.7, and an unmodified molecular weight of 44 kD. Using fluorescent-tagged tuftelin and amelogenin plasmid constructs we saw little evidence that these two enamel proteins colocalize in ameloblast-like LS-8 cells. Tuftelin is primarily localized to distinct 'speckled' domains within the cell cytoplasm. In an attempt to better define a physiological function for tuftelin during amelogenesis, we have produced transgenic mice that overexpress tuftelin in ameloblasts and subsequently the enamel matrix. Tuftelin overexpression impacts dramatically upon the enamel crystallite habit and the enamel prismatic structure. Overexpressing tuftelin results in gross imperfections in enamel that is evident both at the nanoscale and the mesoscale. The most notable difference observed in the transgenic animals, when compared to wild-type animals, is an apparent loss of restricted growth of enamel crystallites along their a-axis and b-axis. This equates to a change in the crystallite aspect ratio. In the transgenic animals the crystallite structures appear more 'plate'-like in contrast to the symmetric, 'ribbon'-like crystallite morphology that is a characteristic feature of mammalian enamel.Cells Tissues Organs 02/2004; 177(4):212-20. DOI:10.1159/000080134 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Enamel matrix consists of amelogenin and non-amelogenins. Though amelogenin is not involved in nucleation of minerals, the enamel mineralization is impaired when amelogenin or other matrix protein (ameloblastin/enamelin) genes are mutated. We hypothesize that amelogenin may promote enamel mineralization by interacting with the calcium-binding matrix proteins. Specific binding of amelogenin to N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), GlcNAc-mimicking peptides (GMps), and their carrier proteins and the identification of amelogenin-trityrosyl-motif-peptide (ATMP) as a GlcNAc/GMp-binding domain in amelogenin favor the hypothesis. This study tested the interaction of amelogenin with ameloblastin, a carrier of GMp sequence at intermittent sites. Neither GlcNAc nor sialic acids were identified in the recombinant-ameloblastin. Amelogenin bound to recombinant-ameloblastin in both Western blots and in ELISA. More specifically, [(3)H]ATMP bound to both recombinant and native ameloblastins. Dosimetry and Scatchard analyses showed the specific interaction between ATMP and ameloblastin, suggesting that amelogenin may interact with ameloblastin to form a heteromolecular assembly.Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2004; 323(3):1075-83. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.08.207 · 2.28 Impact Factor