Article

Evaluation of a unique oral contraceptive (Yasmin) in the management of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care (Impact Factor: 1.84). 01/2003; 7 Suppl 3:27-34; discussion 42-3.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Over three-quarters of women experience some physical and emotional changes associated with the menstrual cycle. Irritability, tension, fatigue, depression, breast tenderness and bloating are among the most common premenstrual symptoms. Approximately 5-10% of women of childbearing age experience premenstrual symptoms to a degree that disrupts their functioning in the home or workplace and that meet criteria for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Serotonergic antidepressants are clearly effective for PMDD, with about 60% of subjects responding to this treatment in controlled studies. Oral contraceptives are commonly used to treat premenstrual symptoms but are an understudied intervention with no information on their efficacy for PMDD). The recent introduction of an oral contraceptive (Yasmin, Schering AG, Berlin, Germany), containing low-dose ethinylestradiol (EE) combined with a new progestogen, drospirenone (DRSP), may offer clinical efficacy for PMDD as a result of the unique pharmacological profile of this progestogen, which is a spirolactone derivative with antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of DRSP/EE in women with PMDD found a consistently greater reduction of symptoms-from baseline for all 22 premenstrual symptoms assessed (using the Calendar of Premenstrual Experiences, COPE) and for the four statistically derived symptom factors in the group taking DRSP/EE compared to the placebo group. For appetite, acne and food craving (factor 3), the difference between the DRSP/EE group and the placebo group was statistically significant (p = 0.027). These preliminary results suggest the beneficial effect of DRSP/EE on PMDD and offer an alternative class of medication that also provides the range of benefits of oral contraception for women with PMDD.

0 Followers
 · 
83 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An estimated 80% of sexually active young women in the United States use hormonal contraceptives during their reproductive years. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and mood disturbances remain understudied, despite the hypothesis that estrogen and progesterone play a role in mood problems. In this study, we used data from 6,654 sexually active nonpregnant women across 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-2008), focusing on women aged 25-34 years. Women were asked about hormonal contraceptive use in the context of a current sexual partnership; thus, contraceptive users were compared with other sexually active women who were using either nonhormonal contraception or no contraception. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. At ages 25-34 years, hormonal contraceptive users had lower mean levels of concurrent depressive symptoms (β = -1.04, 95% confidence interval: -1.73, -0.35) and were less likely to report a past-year suicide attempt (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.14, 0.95) than women using low-efficacy contraception or no contraception, in models adjusted for propensity scores for hormonal contraceptive use. Longitudinal analyses indicated that associations between hormonal contraception and depressive symptoms were stable. Hormonal contraception may reduce levels of depressive symptoms among young women. Systematic investigation of exogenous hormones as a potential preventive factor in psychiatric epidemiology is warranted.
    American journal of epidemiology 09/2013; DOI:10.1093/aje/kwt188 · 4.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Both female reproductive hormones and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are implicated in migraine and in menstrually related mood disorders (MRMD). We examined the association of migraine, including migraine with aura (MA), and history of MRMD or CSA. Methods: A total of 174 women (mean age 33.9±7.6 years) in this cross-sectional study were evaluated for (1) current MRMD using prospective daily ratings; (2) history of CSA using structured interview; and (3) MA and migraine without aura using the International Classification of Headaches Disorders II criteria. Results: Ninety-six women met MRMD criteria (21 of whom had history of CSA) and 78 women were non-MRMD controls (16 with CSA histories). Migraine with aura was more prevalent in women with MRMD when compared to non-MRMD controls (11/88 and 0/86, respectively, p=0.001). In MRMD women only, a CSA history was associated with higher MA rates (6/21 and 5/67, respectively, p=0.019). A combination of current MRMD diagnosis and a history CSA was associated with increased risk for MA, even after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio=12.08, 95% confidence interval 2.98-48.90, p<0.001). Conclusions: Women with MRMD may be vulnerable to the development of MA, and a history of CSA in women with a MRMD appears to increase that vulnerability. MRMDs and MA should be included among other poor mental and physical health outcomes of an abuse history. Routine screening for abuse histories would potentially improve identification of women with increased risk of experiencing abuse-related disorders.
    Journal of Women's Health 08/2013; DOI:10.1089/jwh.2013.4279 · 1.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is far from satisfactory, as there is a high proportion of patients who do not respond to conventional treatment. The antidiuretic sulfonamide, acetazolamide, inhibits carbonic anhydrase and potentiates GABAergic transmission; the latter is putatively involved in PMDD. We therefore tried acetazolamide in a series of women with intractable PMDD. Here, we describe a series of eight women diagnosed with DSM-IV-TR PMDD, five of whom had comorbidity with a mood disorder and one with an anxiety disorder, who were resistant to treatment and responded with symptom disappearance after being added-on 125 mg/day acetazolamide for 7-10 days prior to menses each month. Patients were free from premenstrual symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. We suggest that acetazolamide may be used to improve symptoms of PMDD in cases not responding to other treatments. GABAergic mechanisms may be involved in counteracting PMDD symptoms.
    Psychiatry investigation 01/2014; 11(1):95-101. DOI:10.4306/pi.2014.11.1.95 · 1.15 Impact Factor