Hemocyte types and total and differential counts in unparasitized and parasitized Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera, Tephritidae) larvae.
ABSTRACT The hemocyte types, in addition to total and differential hemocyte counts were studied in parasitized and unparasitized Anastrepha obliqua larvae at the beginning and at the end of the third instar. In both developmental phases, in parasitized and unparasitized larvae, prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, adipohemocytes, spherulocytes and oenocytoids cells were observed. Mitotic figures indicate prohemocytes as stem cells. Prohemocytes, plasmatocytes and granulocytes are the most numerous cells in the hemolymph of A. obliqua. Difference in the total number of hemocytes was observed between unparasitized and parasitized larvae at the end of the third instar, but not at the beginning.
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ABSTRACT: Although invertebrates are recognized by the great facility to accumulate pollutants present in their environment and many of them are used as sentinel species in biomonitoring studies, little is known about the impact of toxicants on the immune system of these animals. In this regard, hemocytes play a fundamental role: these cells circulate freely through the hemolymph of invertebrates and act on the recognition of foreign material to the organism, mediating and effecting the cellular defense, such as phagocytosis, nodulation, and encapsulation. Different morphological types can be recognized but still there is controversy among the researchers about the exact classification of the hemocytes due to the diversity of techniques for the preservation and observation of these cells. In the present study, a review on the main hemocyte responses to environmental stress in different invertebrate organisms is presented, emphasizing the contamination by heavy metals. It is discussed parameters such as: alteration in the number of cells involved in the defense reaction, phagocytic activity, lysosomal responses, and production of reactive oxygen species.Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 06/2011; 177(1-4):437-47. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Environmental conditions in addition to divalent cations may affect the interactions between pathogens and insects. Elucidation of factors which modulate insect immune responses could be a significant part of investigations in this area. In this study, adults of Eurygaster integriceps, as the destructive pest of wheat, were kept at different temperatures in addition to injection with different concentrations of Ca2+ to find the effect on cellular immune reactions against Beauveria bassiana. Results showed that total and differentiate hemocyte numbers, nodule formation and phenoloxidase activity increased with elevation of temperature so that the higher values were obtained at 30 and 40°C at various intervals. Higher concentrations of Ca2+ ion (5 mM) caused an increase in plasmatocyte length and width especially after 60 min. Similar results were observed for nodule formation and phenoloxidase activity of E. integriceps adults after injection by B. bassiana spores and phenoloxidase activity. It is clear from the current study that thermoregulation and Ca2+ ion can positively affect the hemocyte numbers especially plasmatocytes and granulocytes, nodule formation and phenoloxidase activity in E. integriceps. The understanding of modulators of the insect immune response may directly influence novel approaches to obtain safe and effective biological control agents.Entomological Research 10/2009; 39(6):364 - 371.
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ABSTRACT: In this study, five morphological types of circulating hemocytes were recognized in the hemolymph of the adult sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), namely prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, adipohemocytes, and oenocytoids. The effects of the secondary metabolites of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on cellular immune defenses of Eurygaster integriceps were investigated. The results showed that the fungal secondary metabolites inhibited phagocytic activity of E. integriceps hemocytes and hampered nodule formation. A reduction of phenoloxidase activity was also observed. The data suggest that B. bassiana produce secondary metabolites that disable several immune mechanisms allowing the fungus to overcome and then kill its host. This characteristic makes B. bassiana a promising model for biological control of insect pests such as E. integriceps.Journal of Insect Science 01/2011; 11:138. · 0.88 Impact Factor