Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) imaged by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with the metabolic syndrome features, being morphologically and functionally different from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Insulin effect is lower and catecholamine effect higher in visceral adipose tissue, with its metabolites and its secretions draining through portal system, partially at least, to the liver. Thus, visceral cells transfer and release fatty acids more extensively, have increased glucocorticoid and reduced thiazolidinedione responses, produce more angiotensinogen, interleukin-6 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and secrete less leptin and adiponectin than SAT. Furthermore, there are regional differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the preadipocytes, with those of SAT presenting greater differentiation and fat cell gene expression but less apoptosis than that of VAT. All features contribute to the morbidity associated with increased VAT. To evaluate the relationship between VAT and components of the metabolic syndrome, 55 non-diabetic women, 11 lean (VAT < 68 cm 2) and 44 obese were studied. The obese with VAT within the normal range (VAT < or = 68 cm 2) had higher BMI, WHR, BP and resistance to FFA suppression during oGTT in comparison to the lean controls. The obese with VAT > 68 cm 2 compared to those with VAT < or = 68 cm 2 had similar body mass index (BMI) but significantly higher in vivo homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA IR ) results and triglycerides. By pooling all data, correlation analysis indicated that VAT contributes more to insulin resistance (HOMA IR ) than SAT does, but not when insulin-suppressed plasma free fatty acids during oral glucose tolerance test as an index of insulin resistance are taken into consideration.
"In humans and rodents, the two major fat depots include visceral adipose tissue (VAT), which is the fat of the intra-abdominal cavity, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), which is the fat layer under the skin 13. In addition to VAT and SAT, intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) and intramuscular fat (IMF) are also measured in farm animal species such as swine and cattle. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue is considered as a major endocrine organ that secretes numerous proteins called adipokines. The heterogeneous nature of adipose tissue in different parts of the body suggests respective heterogeneity of proteomes and secretomes. This review consolidates knowledge from recent studies targeting the diversity of different adipose depots affecting the pattern of secreted adipokines and discusses potential consequences for the cross-talk between adipose and skeletal muscle in humans, rodent models and farm animals. Special attention is paid to muscle-associated fat depots like inter- and intramuscular fat that become focus of attention in the context of the rather new notion of skeletal muscle as a major endocrine organ. Understanding the complexity of communication between adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells will allow developing strategies for improvement of human health and for sustainable production of high quality meat.
"VAT in comparison to SAT fat deposition is known to correlate to metabolic complications, such as cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and T2D . Since only a few studies have been conducted with paired VAT and SAT tissues, the depot dependent differences in gene expression of maker genes was evaluated. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) accumulate in adipose tissue and some are described to possess endocrine disrupting capacities. Therefore, it is important to evaluate their effects on key endocrine pathways in adipose tissue (AT), to further evaluate their potential role in metabolic pathologies such as obesity.
THE AIM IS TWOFOLD: (i) evaluate gene expression levels of obesity marker genes, i.e. the adipokines leptin (LEP), adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) and the nuclear receptor, Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) in paired subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) AT of obese subjects (n = 50) and to relate these values to serum concentrations of LEP and ADIPOQ (ii) evaluate the association of expression levels of marker genes in AT and serum with POP concentrations in AT.
Leptin and adiponectin levels in serum were positively correlated to respectively expression levels of leptin in SAT and adiponectin in VAT. Our study shows more significant correlations between gene expression of obesity marker genes and POP concentrations in VAT compared to SAT. Since VAT is more important than SAT in pathologies associated with obesity, this suggests that POPs are able to influence the association between obesity and the development of associated pathologies. Moreover, this finding reveals the importance of VAT when investigating the obesogen hypothesis. Concerning PPARγ expression in VAT, negative correlations with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations were found in non T2D patients. LEP serum concentrations correlated with several PCBs in women whereas in men no correlations were found. This strengthens the potential importance of gender differences in obesity and within the obesogen hypothesis.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84816. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084816 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"In humans, visceral AT has been shown to generate angiotensin, interleukin (IL) -6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 at higher levels and leptin and adiponectin at lower levels than subcutaneous AT . Differences in hormone-sensitive lipase activity and maximum lipolytic capacity between omental and subcutaneous AT depots have been reported; however, these phenomena seem to be strongly correlated to the adipocyte size and their capacity to expand . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic infections have been demonstrated to maintain low-grade systemic inflammation and associate with atherosclerosis. We studied the inflammation- and lipid homeostasis-related effects of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infections on the epididymal and inguinal adipose tissue (AT) transcriptomes and fatty acid distribution in apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient mice. Chow-fed apoE-deficient mice were exposed to 1) chronic intranasal infection with C. pneumoniae (Cpn group), 2) recurrent intravenous infection with A. actinomycetemcomitans (Aa group), 3) a combination of both types of infection (Cpn + Aa group), or 4) infection with the vehicle (control group). Epididymal and inguinal AT gene expression was analyzed using an Illumina Mouse WG-6 v2.0 platform and quantitative PCR (QPCR). Microarray data were analyzed using Gene Ontology enrichment analysis. AT fatty acid analysis was performed using gas--liquid chromatography.
The transcriptomics data revealed significant enrichment in inflammation-associated biological pathways in both AT depots derived from the Aa and Cpn + Aa treated mice compared with the control group. The proportion of saturated fatty acids was higher in the inguinal AT in Aa (p = 0.027) and Cpn + Aa (p = 0.009) groups and in the epididymal AT in Aa group (p = 0.003). The proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids was significantly lower among all Aa-infected groups in both depots. Chronic Cpn infection displayed only minor effects on transcriptomics and fatty acids of the AT depots.
Systemic infection with A. actinomycetemcomitans activates inflammation-related biological pathways and modulates cellular lipid homeostasis. The adverse changes in adipose tissues during chronic infection may promote atherosclerosis.
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