To examine the temporal relation between obesity and depression to determine if each constitutes a risk factor for the other.
A two-wave, 5-y-observational study with all measures at both times.
A total of 2123 subjects, 50 y of age and older, who participated in the 1994 and 1999 waves of the Alameda County Study.
Obesity defined as body mass index (BMI)> or =30. Depression assessed using DSM-IV symptom criteria for major depressive episodes. Covariates include indicators of age, gender, education, marital status, social support, life events, physical health problems, and functional limitations.
Obesity at baseline was associated with increased risk of depression 5 y later, even after controlling for depression at baseline and an array of covariates. The reverse was not true; depression did not increase the risk of future obesity.
These results, the first ever on reciprocal effects between obesity and depression, add to a growing body of evidence concerning the adverse effects of obesity on mental health. More studies are needed on the relation between obesity and mental health and implications for prevention and treatment.
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"Obese individuals are at increased risk of developing depression (25, 26), and this risk is doubled in the presence of diabetes (Anderson et al., 2001; De Groot et al., 2001; Labad et al., 2010). Depressed mood is also associated with abdominal obesity and poor diet (Roberts et al., 2003; Dong et al., 2004; Simon et al., 2006; Luppino et al., 2010; Zhao et al., 2011; Hamer et al., 2012). A link between obesity and depression has been found in animal models of mood disorders (Lombard, 2000; Pawels and Volterrani, 2008; Dallman et al., 2003, 2005; Singh et al., 2007, 2009, 2011; Dallman, 2010; Chuang et al., 2011; Diz-Chaves, 2011; Maniam and Morris, 2012; Spence and Courbasson, 2012; Akubuiro et al., 2013; Kumar et al., 2013), suggesting that a common signaling pathway may underlie these phenotypes in both humans and animals. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.
Frontiers in Psychology 09/2014; 5:925. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00925 · 2.80 Impact Factor
"Findings for other mental illnesses are similar, with links between obesity and both mood and anxiety disorders –. Most prospective studies have focused on relationships between anxiety or depression in adolescence and obesity in either later adolescence , – or early adulthood – with only a few examining adult depression and later obesity , , , . In studies of adulthood, follow up periods have generally been short and while some have demonstrated relationships between depression and later obesity , , others have shown only associations at baseline , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Some mental illnesses have been suggested to be associated with obesity, although results are somewhat inconsistent and research has focused mainly on depression.
Associations between anxiety, depression, medications for these illnesses, and obesity were investigated cross-sectionally among women aged 25–74 (n = 3004) who participated as population controls in a cancer case-control study. Participants self-reported information on anxiety, depression, height, current weight and weight at age 25.
No association was observed between either anxiety or depression and either current overweight or obesity status. However, depressed women taking antidepressants were more likely to be obese [OR = 1.71 (95%CI = 1.16–2.52) daily antidepressant use; OR = 1.89 (95%CI = 1.21–2.96) ever tricyclic antidepressant use]. In the full study sample consistent positive associations between anxiety, depression and obesity among women with a history of antidepressant use, and generally negative associations among women without, were suggested. Finally, weight gain was associated with history of anxiety [5–19 kg OR = 1.29 (95% CI = 1.06–1.57); ≥20 kg OR = 1.43 (95% CI = 1.08–1.88)] and depression [≥20 kg OR = 1.28 (95% CI = 0.99–1.65)].
These results suggest depression and anxiety may be associated with weight gain and antidepressant use may be associated with obesity.
PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e99780. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099780 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Ultimately, the theory stipulates that negative affect creates pressure for corrective action, with deviant behavior being one possible coping mechanism. A large body of prior research has shown a consistent positive association between obesity and depression among adults, in both cross-sectional (Faith et al. 2002; Scott et al. 2008) and longitudinal studies (Roberts et al. 2000, 2003). In cross-sectional work, it has been suggested that obesity increases the risk of developing depression through negative self-images and somatic consequences (Luppino et al. 2010), but the direction of the relationship has been questioned; it is possible that depression leads to unhealthy eating behaviors and thus the development of obesity. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity and substance use are two common areas of research among adolescents. Interestingly, very little research examines the relationship between these two important health risk behaviors and the findings are inconsistent. Guided by Agnew’s general strain theory and using the Add Health data, we examine this neglected area of research. The current research has identified a link between weight strain and binge drinking and is supportive of the extant research on both general strain theory and the links between stigma, stress, and health. We also found some evidence that this relationship was gendered. Implications and future research directions are discussed.