Influence of two different volume replacement regimens on renal function in elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery: comparison of a new starch preparation with gelatin.
ABSTRACT There is continuing concern on the influence of hydroxethyl starch (HES) on renal function.
Prospective, randomized study.
University-affiliated medical center.
Forty consecutive patients aged >70 years undergoing cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass.
Either low-molecular HES (mean molecular weight: 130 kD) with low degree of substitution (0.4) (6% HES 130/0.4) (n=20) or gelatin ( n=20) was given after induction of anesthesia until the 2nd postoperative day (POD) to keep central venous pressure between 12-14 mmHg.
Creatinine clearance (CC) and fractional sodium clearance (FSC) were measured. N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamidase, alpha-1-microglobulin, glutathione transferase-pi, and glutathione transferase-alpha were measured from urine specimens. Measurements were made after induction of anesthesia, at the end of surgery, and at the first and the second POD. More gelatin (total: 4150+/-490 ml) than HES 130/0.4 (total: 3450+/-450 ml) was infused within the study. CC and FSC were without differences between the two groups. All measured kidney-specific proteins were almost within normal range at baseline. They increased significantly after surgery, however, without significant group differences. At the 2nd POD, kidney-specific proteins had returned almost to normal values. None of the patients developed acute renal failure.
Sensitive markers of kidney dysfunction increased in our elderly patients indicating moderate alterations in kidney integrity during cardiac surgery. The two volume replacement regimens did not differ with regard to kidney integrity in elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Article: Hydroxyethyl starch versus Ringer solution in cardiopulmonary bypass prime solutions (a randomized controlled trial).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In our study we compared the Ringer solution, which is the standard prime solution of our department, with the HES (Hydroxyethyl starch) 130-0.4 solution, which can be a potential alternative prime solution with an indispensable material for the cardio-pulmonary bypass applications. 140 patients undergoing to CABG (Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery) were electively enrolled to the study. 1500 ml Ringer solution + 200 ml mannitol + 60 ml sodium bicarbonate + 150 U/kg heparin was used as a prime solution to start cardiopulmonary by-pass in 70 patients which was defined as group 1. On the other hand, 1500 ml HES 130 - 0.4 + 200 ml mannitol + 60 ml sodium bicarbonate + 150 U/kg heparin was used as a prime solution in 70 patients in group 2. INR (International Normalized Ratio), urea levels and blood platelet counts were significantly different between the groups. INR level was higher in group 1, while blood urea and creatinine levels and platelet count were higher in group 2 at the end of the 12th and 24nd hours postoperatively (p = 0.001).In this study, it was shown that the usage of HES 130-0.4 as a prime solution did not have negative effect on postoperative INR level, platelet count, the need for transfusion and the amount of drainage, despite the negative opinions that similar solutions caused coagulation disorders. Another interesting result of the study was that blood platelet count at 24th hour was statistically significantly higher in group 2 (p = 0.001). HES 130-0.4 solution is an alternative colloidal solution which can be used as the prime solution or as a mixture with the crystalloids in cardio-pulmonary bypass applications.Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 08/2008; 3:45. · 1.19 Impact Factor
Article: Safety and efficacy of quinacrine in human prion disease (PRION-1 study): a patient-preference trial.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The propagation of prions, the causative agents of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and other human prion diseases, requires post-translational conversion of normal cellular prion protein to disease-associated forms. The antimalarial drug quinacrine (mepacrine) prevents this conversion in vitro, and was given to patients with various prion diseases to assess its safety and efficacy in changing the course of these invariably fatal and untreatable diseases. Patients with prion disease were recruited via the UK national referral system and were offered a choice between quinacrine (300 mg daily), no quinacrine, or randomisation to immediate quinacrine or deferred quinacrine in an open-label, patient-preference trial. The primary endpoints were death and serious adverse events possibly or probably related to the study drug. This study is registered, ISRCTN 06722585. 107 patients with prion disease (45 sporadic, two iatrogenic, 18 variant, and 42 inherited) were enrolled, 23 in a pilot study and 84 in the main study. Only two patients chose randomisation; 40 took quinacrine during follow-up (37 who chose it at enrollment). Choice of treatment was associated with disease severity, with those least and most severely affected more likely to choose not to receive quinacrine. 78 (73%) patients died: one randomly assigned to deferred treatment, 26 of 38 who chose immediate quinacrine, and 51 of 68 who chose no quinacrine. Although adjusted mortality was lower in those who chose to take quinacrine than in those who did not, this was due to confounding with disease severity, and there was no difference in mortality between groups after adjustment. Four of 40 patients who took quinacrine had a transient response on neurological rating scales. Only two of 14 reported serious adverse events were judged quinacrine-related. Quinacrine at a dose of 300 mg per day was reasonably tolerated but did not significantly affect the clinical course of prion diseases in this observational study.The Lancet Neurology 05/2009; 8(4):334-44. · 23.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rapidly progressive dementia (RPD) has many possible etiologies and definitive treatment is reliant upon an accurate diagnosis from an appropriate diagnostic work-up. A large portion of the neurodegenerative causes of RPD are due to prion diseases (e.g., Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease). The study of prion diseases, for which there is no currently available treatment, has public health implications and is becoming increasingly more relevant to our understanding of other protein misfolding disorders including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal degeneration, and Parkinson's disease. This article begins with an overview of the etiologies and diagnostic work-up of RPD followed by a detailed review of the literature concerning the treatment of human prion diseases (1971 to present). The reader will understand the differential diagnosis and work-up of RPD as it pertains to its treatment, as well as an in-depth understanding of treatments of human prion diseases. An accurate diagnosis of the cause of RPD is of paramount importance when determining appropriate treatment. Most studies of the treatment for human prion diseases are case reports or case series, and results from only one randomized, placebo-controlled study have been reported in the literature (flupirtine). Studies have been hindered by disease heterogeneity and lack of standardized outcome measures. Although no effective prion disease treatment has been revealed through these studies, they provide important considerations for future studies.Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 01/2011; 12(1):1-12. · 3.20 Impact Factor