Scapular dyskinesis and its relation to shoulder pain.
ABSTRACT Scapular dyskinesis is an alteration in the normal position or motion of the scapula during coupled scapulohumeral movements. It occurs in a large number of injuries involving the shoulder joint and often is caused by injuries that result in the inhibition or disorganization of activation patterns in scapular stabilizing muscles. It may increase the functional deficit associated with shoulder injury by altering the normal scapular role during coupled scapulohumeral motions. Scapular dyskinesis appears to be a nonspecific response to shoulder dysfunction because no specific pattern of dyskinesis is associated with a specific shoulder diagnosis. It should be suspected in patients with shoulder injury and can be identified and classified by specific physical examination. Treatment of scapular dyskinesis is directed at managing underlying causes and restoring normal scapular muscle activation patterns by kinetic chain-based rehabilitation protocols.
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ABSTRACT: The shoulder is subject to tremendous stress during the throwing motion, which creates the opportunity for injury and disability. Understanding the potential causes of injury in the overhead athlete can be challenging in and of itself; however, placing those diagnoses in the clinical context of an injured athlete can be even more challenging. In a world of advancing technology and increasing dependence on magnetic resonance imaging, the art of history taking and physical examination can be easily forgotten.Sports medicine and arthroscopy review 06/2014; 22(2):94-100. · 1.16 Impact Factor
Article: The Thrower's Shoulder.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Throwers, or athletes who engage in repetitive overhead motions, are a unique subset of athletes that experience distinct shoulder injuries. Athletes engaged in baseball comprise the majority of patients seeking orthopedic care for throwing related injuries. Injuries specific to throwers most commonly involve the labrum and the undersurface of the rotator cuff. In addition, tissue changes in both the anterior and posterior glenohumeral capsule are common with repetitive overhead motions. These capsular changes alter. This article will examine the pathomechanics of injuries to throwers, elaborate means of diagnoses of cuff and labral injury and discuss recent advances in both non-operative and operative interventions, including preventative principles.Orthopedic Clinics of North America 07/2014; 45(3):387-401. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Shoulder tendon injuries are frequently seen in the presence of abnormal scapular motion, termed scapular dyskinesis. The cause and effect relationship between scapular dyskinesis and shoulder injury has not been directly defined. We developed and used an animal model to examine the initiation and progression of pathological changes in the rotator cuff and biceps tendon. Sixty male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: nerve transection (to induce scapular dyskinesis, SD) or sham nerve transection (control). The animals were euthanized 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. Shoulder function and passive joint mechanics were evaluated over time. Tendon mechanical, histological, organizational, and compositional properties were evaluated at both time points. Gross observation demonstrated alterations in scapular motion, consistent with scapular “winging.” Shoulder function, passive internal range of motion, and tendon mechanical properties were significantly altered. Histology results, consistent with tendon pathology (rounded cell shape and increased cell density), were observed, and protein expression of collagen III and decorin was altered. This study presents a new model of scapular dyskinesis that can rigorously evaluate cause and effect relationships in a controlled manner. Our results identify scapular dyskinesis as a causative mechanical mechanism for shoulder tendon pathology. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop ResJournal of Orthopaedic Research 07/2014; · 2.88 Impact Factor