Sepsis upregulates the gene expression of multiple ubiquitin ligases in skeletal muscle.
ABSTRACT Muscle wasting during sepsis reflects increased expression and activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway and is at least in part mediated by glucocorticoids. The ubiquitination of proteins destined to be degraded by the proteasome is regulated by multiple enzymes, including ubiquitin ligases. We tested the hypothesis that sepsis upregulates the gene expression of the newly described ubiquitin ligases, MuRF1 and atrogin-1/MAFbx. Sepsis was induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture. Control rats were sham-operated. In some experiments, rats were treated with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU 38486 before induction of sepsis. At various time points after induction of sepsis, mRNA levels for MuRF1 and atrogin-1/MAFbx were determined in extensor digitorum longus muscles by real-time PCR. Sepsis resulted in a 10-16-fold increase in gene expression of the ubiquitin ligases studied here. These changes were much greater than those observed previously for another ubiquitin ligase, E3alpha, in muscle during sepsis. Treatment of rats with RU 38486 prevented the sepsis-induced increase in mRNA levels for MuRF1 and atrogin-1/MAFbx, suggesting that glucocorticoids participate in the upregulation of these genes in muscle during sepsis. The present results lend further support to the concept that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway plays an important role in sepsis-induced muscle proteolysis and suggest that multiple ubiquitin ligases may participate in the development of muscle wasting during sepsis.
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ABSTRACT: Muscle RING Finger 1 (MuRF1) and Muscle Atrophy F-Box (MAFbx)/atrogin-1 were identified over ten years ago as two muscle specific E3 ubiquitin ligases that are transcriptionally increased in skeletal muscle under atrophy-inducing conditions, making them excellent markers of muscle atrophy. In the past ten years much has been published about MuRF1 and MAFbx with respect to their mRNA expression patterns under atrophy-inducing conditions, their transcriptional regulation, and their putative substrates. However, much remains to be learned about the physiological role of both genes in the regulation of mass and other cellular functions in striated muscle. While both MuRF1 and MAFbx are enriched in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle, this review will focus on the current understanding of MuRF1 and MAFbx in skeletal muscle, highlighting the critical questions that remain to be answered.AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2014; 307(6). DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00204.2014 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoids are highly conserved fundamental regulators of energy homeostasis. In response to stress in the form of perceived danger or acute inflammation, glucocorticoids are released from the adrenal gland, rapidly mobilizing energy from carbohydrate, fat and protein stores. In the case of inflammation, mobilized protein is critical for the rapid synthesis of acute phase reactants and an efficient immune response to infection. While adaptive in response to infection, chronic mobilization can lead to a profound depletion of energy stores. Skeletal muscle represents the major body store of protein, and can become substantially atrophied under conditions of chronic inflammation. Glucocorticoids elicit the atrophy of muscle by increasing the rate of protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy lysosome system. Protein synthesis is also suppressed at the level of translational initiation, preventing the production of new myofibrillar protein. Glucocorticoids also antagonize the action of anabolic regulators such as insulin further exacerbating the loss of protein and muscle mass. The loss of muscle mass in the context of chronic disease is a key feature of cachexia and contributes substantially to morbidity and mortality. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that glucocorticoid signaling is a common mediator of wasting, irrespective of the underlying initiator or disease state. This review will highlight fundamental mechanisms of glucocorticoid signaling and detail the mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy. Additionally, the evidence for glucocorticoids as a driver of muscle wasting in numerous disease states will be discussed. Given the burden of wasting diseases and the nodal nature of glucocorticoid signaling, effective anti-glucocorticoid therapy would be a valuable clinical tool. Therefore, the progress and potential pitfalls in the development of glucocorticoid antagonists for muscle wasting will be discussed.Frontiers in Physiology 02/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2015.00012
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ABSTRACT: Muscle wasting impairs physical performance, increases mortality and reduces medical intervention efficacy in chronic diseases and cancer. Developing proficient intervention strategies requires improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing muscle mass wasting and recovery. Involvement of muscle protein- and myonuclear turnover during recovery from muscle atrophy has received limited attention. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I signaling pathway has been implicated in muscle mass regulation. As glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is inhibited by IGF-I signaling, we hypothesized that muscle-specific GSK-3β deletion facilitates the recovery of disuse-atrophied skeletal muscle. Wild-type mice and mice lacking muscle GSK-3β (MGSK-3β KO) were subjected to a hindlimb suspension model of reversible disuse-induced muscle atrophy and followed during recovery. Indices of muscle mass, protein synthesis and proteolysis, and post-natal myogenesis which contribute to myonuclear accretion, were monitored during the reloading of atrophied muscle. Early muscle mass recovery occurred more rapidly in MGSK-3β KO muscle. Reloading-associated changes in muscle protein turnover were not affected by GSK-3β ablation. However, coherent effects were observed in the extent and kinetics of satellite cell activation, proliferation and myogenic differentiation observed during reloading, suggestive of increased myonuclear accretion in regenerating skeletal muscle lacking GSK-3β. This study demonstrates that muscle mass recovery and post-natal myogenesis from disuse-atrophy are accelerated in the absence of GSK-3β. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease 12/2014; 1852(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.12.006 · 5.09 Impact Factor