Serial analysis of gene expression in turkey sperm storage tubules in the presence and absence of resident sperm.
ABSTRACT Turkey sperm lose viability within 8-18 h when stored as liquid semen using current methods and extenders. In contrast, turkey hens maintain viable, fertile sperm in their sperm storage tubules (SST) for 45 or more days following a single insemination. Our long-term objectives are to identify and characterize differentially expressed genes that may underlie this prolonged sperm storage and then use this information to develop improved methods for storing liquid turkey semen. We employed serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) to compare gene expression patterns in turkey SST recovered from hens after artificial insemination (AI) with extended semen (sperm AI) or extender alone (control AI). We constructed two separate SAGE libraries with SST RNA obtained from sperm and control AI hens. We used these libraries to generate 95,325 ten-base pair SAGE tags. These 95,325 tags represented 27,430 unique genes. The sperm and control AI libraries contained 47,663 and 47,662 tags representing 18,030 and 19,101 putative unique transcripts, respectively. Approximately 1% of these putative unique genes were differentially expressed (P<0.05) between treatments. Tentative annotations were ascribed to the SAGE tag nucleotide sequences by comparing them against publicly available SAGE tag and cDNA sequence databases. Based on its SAGE tag nucleotide sequence, we cloned a partial turkey avidin cDNA and confirmed its up-regulation in the sperm AI SST. The bioinformatics and experimental procedures employed to clone turkey avidin and confirm its differential expression represent a useful paradigm for analyzing SAGE tag data from relatively uncharacterized model systems.
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ABSTRACT: Sperm experience intense and varied selection that dramatically impacts the evolution of sperm quality. Selection acts to ensure that sperm are fertilization-competent and able to overcome the many challenges experienced on their way towards eggs. However, simply being able to fertilize an egg is not enough to ensure male fertility in most species. Owing to the prevalence of female multiple mating throughout the animal kingdom, successful fertilization requires sperm to outcompete rival sperm. In addition, females can actively influence sperm quality, storage or utilization to influence male fertility. This review provides an overview of how these selective forces influence the evolution of sperm quality. After exploring the link between sperm traits and male fertility, we examine how post-mating competition between rival ejaculates influences the evolution of sperm quality. We then describe how complex genetic, social and sexual interactions influence sperm quality, focusing on the importance of seminal fluid and interactions between sperm and the female's reproductive tract. In light of the complexities of selection on sperm traits, greater use of multivariate approaches that incorporate male-male, sperm-sperm and sperm-female interactions to study sperm quality will enhance our understanding of how selection acts on sperm traits and factors influencing male fertility. Because the metric of male reproductive success-fertilization-is the same across the animal kingdom, we argue that information about sperm evolution gained from non-human animals has enormous potential to further our understanding of the factors that impact human fertility.Molecular Human Reproduction 10/2014; 20(12):1180-1189. DOI:10.1093/molehr/gau067 · 3.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Functional genomics enables agricultural researchers to investigate how gene expression and regulation contributes to complex production traits at a genome-wide level. There are many different techniques for utilizing functional genomic approaches and new high-throughput technologies are accelerating the amount and complexity of data collected from functional genomics experiments. In this review, we highlight some of the different areas of functional genomics, including some emerging techniques, with a specific focus on how they are being applied to production livestock and aquaculture systems. We look at how transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, interactomics, epigenetics and nutrigenomics are applied to improve our understanding of complex production traits and how the environment affects these traits. We also discuss how changing technologies contribute to functional genomics and the resources agricultural researchers require to ensure that their functional genomics data are effectively translated into benefits for society.CAB Reviews Perspectives in Agriculture Veterinary Science Nutrition and Natural Resources 09/2013; 8(054):1-21. DOI:10.1079/PAVSNNR20130054