Serial Analysis of Gene Expression in Turkey Sperm Storage Tubules in the Presence and Absence of Resident Sperm

Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, USDA-ARS, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA.
Biology of Reproduction (Impact Factor: 3.32). 08/2003; 69(2):469-74. DOI: 10.1095/biolreprod.102.015172
Source: PubMed


Turkey sperm lose viability within 8-18 h when stored as liquid semen using current methods and extenders. In contrast, turkey hens maintain viable, fertile sperm in their sperm storage tubules (SST) for 45 or more days following a single insemination. Our long-term objectives are to identify and characterize differentially expressed genes that may underlie this prolonged sperm storage and then use this information to develop improved methods for storing liquid turkey semen. We employed serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) to compare gene expression patterns in turkey SST recovered from hens after artificial insemination (AI) with extended semen (sperm AI) or extender alone (control AI). We constructed two separate SAGE libraries with SST RNA obtained from sperm and control AI hens. We used these libraries to generate 95,325 ten-base pair SAGE tags. These 95,325 tags represented 27,430 unique genes. The sperm and control AI libraries contained 47,663 and 47,662 tags representing 18,030 and 19,101 putative unique transcripts, respectively. Approximately 1% of these putative unique genes were differentially expressed (P<0.05) between treatments. Tentative annotations were ascribed to the SAGE tag nucleotide sequences by comparing them against publicly available SAGE tag and cDNA sequence databases. Based on its SAGE tag nucleotide sequence, we cloned a partial turkey avidin cDNA and confirmed its up-regulation in the sperm AI SST. The bioinformatics and experimental procedures employed to clone turkey avidin and confirm its differential expression represent a useful paradigm for analyzing SAGE tag data from relatively uncharacterized model systems.

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    • "mice, pigs), sperm and seminal fluid elicit changes in the conformation of the female reproductive tract that facilitate sperm transport (Ravi Ram and Wolfner, 2007) and incite genomic and proteomic modulation of the oviduct (e.g. Ellington et al., 1993; Long et al., 2003; Fazeli et al., 2004; Georgiou et al., 2007; Avila et al., 2011), which may allow females to bias paternity towards sperm bearing either an X or Y chromosome (i.e. a gender biasing mechanism: Almiñana et al., 2014) and impact on offspring health (Bromfield et al., 2014). In turn, females can induce alterations of sperm, such as (hyper)activation and capacitation , or proteolytic cleavage of seminal fluid proteins (Ravi Ram and Wolfner, 2007; Suarez, 2008; Pitnick et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Sperm experience intense and varied selection that dramatically impacts the evolution of sperm quality. Selection acts to ensure that sperm are fertilization-competent and able to overcome the many challenges experienced on their way towards eggs. However, simply being able to fertilize an egg is not enough to ensure male fertility in most species. Owing to the prevalence of female multiple mating throughout the animal kingdom, successful fertilization requires sperm to outcompete rival sperm. In addition, females can actively influence sperm quality, storage or utilization to influence male fertility. This review provides an overview of how these selective forces influence the evolution of sperm quality. After exploring the link between sperm traits and male fertility, we examine how post-mating competition between rival ejaculates influences the evolution of sperm quality. We then describe how complex genetic, social and sexual interactions influence sperm quality, focusing on the importance of seminal fluid and interactions between sperm and the female's reproductive tract. In light of the complexities of selection on sperm traits, greater use of multivariate approaches that incorporate male-male, sperm-sperm and sperm-female interactions to study sperm quality will enhance our understanding of how selection acts on sperm traits and factors influencing male fertility. Because the metric of male reproductive success-fertilization-is the same across the animal kingdom, we argue that information about sperm evolution gained from non-human animals has enormous potential to further our understanding of the factors that impact human fertility.
    Molecular Human Reproduction 10/2014; 20(12):1180-1189. DOI:10.1093/molehr/gau067 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    • "The tendency of sperm agglutination may be the basis for prolonged in vivo storage of spermatozoa because this style of sperm residency is common among domestic birds. In addition, several proteins including carbonic anhydrase [31], avidin [32], aquaporins [33] and alkaline phosphatase [34] have been suggested to have potential roles in sperm maintenance in the SSTs, although no direct implication in sperm storage has been demonstrated. Another important factor supporting sperm storage in the SSTs is defense from anti-sperm immune responses in the oviduct. "
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    ABSTRACT: The ability to store sperm in the female genital tract is frequently observed in vertebrates as well as in invertebrates. Because of the presence of a system that maintains the ejaculated sperm alive in the female reproductive tract in a variety of animals, this strategy appears to be advantageous for animal reproduction. Although the occurrence and physiological reasons for sperm storage have been reported extensively in many species, the mechanism of sperm storage in the female reproductive tract has been poorly understood until recently. In avian species, the specialized simple tubular invaginations referred to as sperm storage tubules (SSTs) are found in the oviduct as a sperm storage organ. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the mechanism of sperm uptake into the SSTs, maintenance within it, and controlled release of the sperm from the SSTs. Since sperm storage in avian species occurs at high body temperatures (i.e., 41 C), elucidation of the mechanism for sperm storage may lead to the development of new strategies for sperm preservation at ambient temperatures, and these could be used in a myriad of applications in the field of reproduction.
    Journal of Reproduction and Development 08/2013; 59(4):334-8. DOI:10.1262/jrd.2013-038 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    • "These findings mirror earlier observations of reduced sperm motility in the rabbit oviduct (Overstreet and Cooper 1975) and indicate that motility suppression is probably one of the most effective strategies for prolonging sperm survival in the female reproductive tract. The research in poultry has also demonstrated that, as in the mouse, cow and pig (Ellington et al. 1993; Fazeli et al. 2004; Georgiou et al. 2007), the sequestration of spermatozoa in the hen and turkey SSTs stimulates de novo gene transcription (Long et al. 2003; Das et al. 2006, 2009). In the hen, this response was shown to include upregulation of transforming growth factor-b, lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor-a and interleukin 1b. "
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    ABSTRACT: Once semen has been collected for artificial insemination, it is diluted into extenders designed to prevent its deterioration over the period prior to insemination. If the semen is not frozen, the extenders provide protection for a period of a few hours to a few days, depending on species. Despite the efforts of biotechnologists to increase the duration of storage without compromising fertility, there has been relatively little progress for many years. However, comparative studies in diverse species have revealed that long-term sperm storage (up to months and years) within the female reproductive tract is relatively commonplace in reptiles, fishes, birds and amphibians. Even among mammals, some species of bat have evolved mechanisms for storing spermatozoa for several months in the uterus or oviduct so that they can mate in the autumn but postpone fertilization until the spring. We currently know little about the mechanisms that support such long-term sperm storage, mainly because evidence from such species is either absent or fragmentary. Nevertheless, parallels between mammalian and other systems, where spermatozoa are sequestered in sperm storage tubules, suggest that the enclosure of spermatozoa within pockets of epithelial cells may be sufficient to achieve long-term sperm storage. In addition, recent evidence from sperm-storing bats has suggested an alternative, or additional, hypothesis that the modulation of apoptosis within epithelial cells is important in controlling sperm survival. Despite a lack of direct experimental evidence from a wide variety of species, I propose that there is now enough evidence to warrant investigation of these hypotheses.
    Reproduction in Domestic Animals 09/2011; 46 Suppl 2(s2):68-74. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0531.2011.01862.x · 1.52 Impact Factor
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