Article

Genomic analysis of stress response genes.

Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderley Park, SK10 4TJ, Cheshire, UK.
Toxicology Letters (Impact Factor: 3.15). 05/2003; 140-141:149-53. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-4274(02)00501-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mammalian cells respond to a wide range of external stimuli including growth factors, peptide hormones, cytokines, osmotic stress, heat shock, pharmacological agents and toxicants via multiple signalling pathways. Genome-wide transcript profiling simultaneously monitors the gene expression programs downstream of all signal transduction pathways and can identify novel molecular targets for stress-inducing signals. Our laboratory has combined transcript profiling of cytotoxic compounds with experimental systems in which signalling components are disrupted (e.g. small molecule protein kinase inhibitors) to reveal the contribution of specific signalling pathways to the transcriptional response to toxicant-induced stress. A complementary approach for elucidating the molecular mechanisms that regulate transcriptional responses to toxicants involves DNA sequence analysis of gene regulatory regions obtained via data mining of recently completed mammalian genome sequences. Together, these approaches reveal the molecular mechanisms used to finely tune alterations in gene expression, enabling cells to react in an appropriate manner to external stress-inducing stimuli.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
63 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The accumulation of DNA damage and mutations is considered a major cause of cancer and aging. While it is known that DNA damage can affect changes in gene expression, transcriptional regulation after DNA damage is poorly understood. We characterized the expression of 6912 genes in human primary fibroblasts after exposure to three different kinds of cellular stress that introduces DNA damage: 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO), gamma-irradiation, or UV-irradiation. Each type of stress elicited damage specific gene expression changes of up to 10-fold. A total of 85 genes had similar changes in expression of 3-40-fold after all three kinds of stress. We examined transcription in cells from young and old individuals and from patients with Werner syndrome (WS), a segmental progeroid condition with a high incidence of cancer, and found various age-associated transcriptional changes depending upon the type of cellular stress. Compared to young individuals, both WS and old individuals had similarly aberrant transcriptional responses to gamma- and UV-irradiation, suggesting a role for Werner protein in stress-induced gene expression. Our results suggest that aberrant DNA damage-induced gene regulation may contribute to the aging process and the premature aging in WS.
    Oncogene 08/2005; 24(32):5026-42. · 8.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, a series of exciting reports have revealed that terminally differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells via overexpression of a cocktail of transcription factors such as Oct3, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc or Oct3, Sox2, Nanog, and Lin28. Most recently, these iPS cells has been used to generate viable, live-born progeny by tetraploid complementation. Reprogramming of iPS cells inaugurates a new era of biology and medicine, it inevitably brings new challenges, e.g., how these factors induce reprogramming and how their expression is regulated. To facilitate iPS cell research, this review focuses on how expression and activation of these transcription factors are regulated.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2009; 390(4):1081-6. · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Heat stress responses are analyzed in cancer cells by applying different microscopy techniques for targeting various fluorescently labeled or native structures. Thermotreatments are performed at 40, 45, 50, and 56 degrees C, respectively, for 30 min each, while controls were kept at 37 degrees C. Actin cytoskeletons labeled with Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated phalloidin are imaged by wide-field fluorescence microscopy (WFFM). Structural plasma membrane stabilities are labeled with fluorescent quantum dots and analyzed by laser scanning microscopy (LSM). High-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to study morphological features and surface structures. Fluorescence images reveal F-actin to be a comparatively thermolabile cell component showing distinctive alteration after heat treatment at 40 degrees C. Destabilization of actin cytoskeletons proceed with increasing stress temperatures. Active reorganization of plasma membranes coincidental to heat-induced shrinkage and rounding of cell shapes, and loosening of monolayered tissue are observed after treatment at 45 or 50 degrees C. Active stress response is inhibited by stress at 56 degrees C, because actin cytoskeletons as well as plasma membranes are destroyed, resulting in necrotic cell phenotypes. Comparing data measured with the same microscopic technique and comparing the different datasets with each other reveal that heat stress response in MX1 cells results from the overlap of different heat-induced subcellular defects.
    Journal of Biomedical Optics 01/2005; 10(4):41209. · 2.75 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
1 Download
Available from