Multiple forms of "kiss-and-run" exocytosis revealed by evanescent wave microscopy.
ABSTRACT Exocytotic release of neuropeptides and hormones is generally believed to involve the complete merger of the secretory vesicle with the plasma membrane. However, recent data have suggested that "kiss-and-run" mechanisms may also play a role. Here, we have examined the dynamics of exocytosis in pancreatic MIN6 beta cells by imaging lumen- (neuropeptide Y/pH-insensitive yellow fluorescent protein; NPY.Venus) or vesicle membrane-targeted fluorescent probes (synaptobrevin-2/enhanced green fluorescent protein; synapto.pHluorin, or phosphatase on the granule of insulinoma-enhanced green fluorescent protein, phogrin.EGFP) by evanescent wave microscopy. Unexpectedly, NPY.Venus release events occurred much less frequently (13%-40% maximal rate) than those of synapto.pHluorin, even though the latter molecule, but not phogrin.EGFP, usually diffused away from the site of fusion. Thus, the majority of exocytosis occurs in these cells by kiss-and-run events that involve either the release of small molecules only, small molecules and selected membrane proteins, or all soluble cargoes ("pure," "mixed," and "full" kiss-and-run, respectively). Changes in the activity of synaptotagmin IV, achieved here by overexpression of the wild-type protein, may allow different stimuli to alter the ratio of these events, and thus the release of selected vesicle cargoes.
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ABSTRACT: The higher organization of β-cells into spheroid structures termed islets of Langerhans is critical for the proper regulation of insulin secretion. Thus, rodent β-cells form a functional syncytium that integrates and propagates information encoded by secretagogues, producing a "gain-of-function" in hormone release through the generation of coordinated cell-cell activity. By contrast, human islets possess divergent topology, and this may have repercussions for the cell-cell communication pathways that mediate the population dynamics underlying the intraislet regulation of insulin secretion. This is pertinent for type 2 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis, and its study in rodent models, because environmental and genetic factors may converge on these processes in a species-specific manner to precipitate the defective insulin secretion associated with glucose intolerance. The aim of the present minireview is therefore to discuss the structural and functional underpinnings that influence insulin secretion from human islets, and the possibility that dyscoordination between individual β-cells may play an important role in some forms of type 2 diabetes mellitus.Molecular Endocrinology 11/2013; · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sulfonylureas are widely prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Through their actions on ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP) channels, sulfonylureas boost insulin release from the pancreatic beta cell mass to restore glucose homeostasis. A limitation of these compounds is the elevated risk of developing hypoglycemia and cardio-vascular disease, both potentially fatal complications. Here, we describe the design and development of a photoswitchable sulfonylurea, JB253, which reversibly and repeatedly blocks K ATP channel activity following exposure to violet-blue light. Using in situ imaging and hormone assays, we further show that JB253 bestows light sensitivity upon rodent and human pancreatic beta cell function. Thus, JB253 enables the optical control of insulin release and may offer a valuable research tool for the interrogation of K ATP channel function in health and T2DM.Nature Communications 10/2014; 5:5116. · 10.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transmembrane proteins are continuously shuttled from the endosomal compartment to the neuronal plasma membrane by highly regulated and complex trafficking steps. These events are involved in many homeostatic and physiological processes such as neuronal growth, signaling, learning and memory among others. We have previously shown that endosomal exocytosis of the B2 adrenergic receptor (B2AR) and the GluR1-containing AMPA receptor to the neuronal plasma membrane is mediated by two different types of vesicular fusion. A rapid type of exocytosis in which receptors are delivered to the plasma membrane in a single kinetic step, and a persistent mode in which receptors remain clustered at the insertion site for a variable period of time before delivery to the cell surface. Here, by comparing the exocytosis of multiple receptors in dissociated hippocampal and striatal cultures, we show that persistent events are a general mechanism of vesicular delivery. Persistent events were only observed after 10 days in vitro, and their frequency increased with use of the calcium ionophore A23187 and with depolarization induced by KCl. Finally, we determined that vesicles producing persistent events remain at the plasma membrane, closing and reopening their fusion pore for a consecutive release of cargo in a mechanism reminiscent of synaptic kiss-and-run. These results indicate that the delivery of transmembrane receptors to the cell surface can be dynamically regulated by kiss-and-run exocytosis.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 11/2014; 8:363. · 4.18 Impact Factor