Variations in hospitalization rates among nursing home residents: the role of facility and market attributes.
ABSTRACT This study examined the contribution of facility-level and area market-level attributes to variations in hospitalization rates among nursing home residents.
Three years (1991-1994) of state quarterly Medicaid case-mix reimbursement data from 527 nursing homes (NH) in Massachusetts were linked with Medicare Provider Analysis and Review hospital claims and nursing facility attribute data to produce a longitudinal, analytical file containing 72,319 person-quarter observations. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the influence of facility-level and market-level factors on hospital use, after controlling for individual-level resident attributes, including: NH diagnoses, resident-level quality of care indicators, and diagnostic cost grouping classification from previous hospital stays.
Multivariate findings suggest that resident heterogeneity alone does not account for the wide variations in hospitalization rates across nursing homes. Instead, facility characteristics such as profit status, nurse staffing patterns, NH size, chain affiliation, and percentage of Medicaid and Medicare reimbursed days significantly influence NH residents' risk of hospitalization. Broader area market factors also appear to contribute to variations in hospitalization rates.
Variations in hospitalization rates may reflect underutilization, as well as overutilization. Continued efforts toward identifying medically necessary hospitalizations are needed.
- SourceAvailable from: R Tamara Konetzka[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess longitudinally whether a change in registered nurse (RN) staffing and skill mix leads to a change in nursing home resident outcomes while controlling for the potential endogeneity of staffing. Minimum Data Set (MDS) nursing home resident assessment data from five states merged with Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) data from 1996 through 2000. Resident-level longitudinal analysis with facility fixed effects and instrumental variables. Outcomes studied are incidence of pressure sores and urinary tract infections. RN staffing was measured as the care hours per resident-day and skill mix was measured as RN staffing hours as a proportion of total staffing hours. DATA EXTRACTION METHOD: We use all quarterly MDS assessments that fall within 120 days of an annual OSCAR data point, resulting in 399,206 resident-level observations. Controlling for endogeneity of staffing increases the estimated impact of staffing on outcomes in nursing homes. Greater RN staffing significantly decreases the likelihood of both adverse outcomes. Increasing skill mix only reduces the incidence of urinary tract infections. Research that fails to account for endogeneity of the staffing-outcomes relationship may underestimate the benefit from increased RN staffing. Increases in RN staffing are likely to reduce adverse outcomes in some nursing homes. More research using a broader array of instruments and a national sample would be beneficial.Health Services Research 07/2008; 43(3):1025-42. DOI:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2007.00803.x · 2.49 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hospitalizations of nursing home residents are costly and expose residents to iatrogenic disease and social and psychological harm. Economic constraints imposed by payers of care, predominantly Medicaid policies, are hypothesized to impact hospitalizations. Federally mandated resident assessments were merged with Medicare claims and eligibility files to determine hospitalizations and death within 150 days of baseline assessment. Nursing home and market characteristics were obtained from the Online Survey Certification and Reporting, and the Area Resource File, respectively. States' average daily Medicaid nursing home payments and bed-hold policies were obtained independently. Prospective cohort study of 570,614 older (> or =65-year-old), non-MCO (Medicare Managed Care), long-stay (> or =90 days) residents in 8,997 urban, freestanding nursing homes assessed between April and June 2000, using multilevel models to test the impact of state policies on hospitalizations controlling for resident, nursing home, and market characteristics. Overall, 99,379 (17.4 percent) residents were hospitalized with rates varying from 8.4 percent in Utah to 24.9 percent in Louisiana. Higher Medicaid per diem was associated with lower odds of hospitalizations (5 percent lower for each $10 above average $103.5, confidence intervals [CI] 0.91-0.99). Hospitalization odds were higher by 36 percent in states with bed-hold policies (CI: 1.12-1.63). State Medicaid bed-hold policy and per-diem payment have important implications for nursing home hospitalizations, which are predominantly financed by Medicare. This study emphasizes the importance of properly aligning state Medicaid and federal Medicare policies in regards to the subsidy of acute, maintenance, and preventive care in the nursing home setting.Health Services Research 08/2007; 42(4):1651-71. DOI:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2006.00670.x · 2.49 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this research, the author reviewed 70 studies that had examined the relationship between staffing levels and quality in nursing homes (covering the years 1991 to 2006). The results of the review including all of this literature show that approximately 40% of the quality indicators examined show an association with nursing home staffing levels. Nevertheless, this finding is further interpreted in the context of the limitations of many of these prior studies. The author discusses the limitations of poor quality staffing data, small sample size, quality indicators used, methodological concerns, and underspecified models inherent to many prior studies. The author finds no study representing a “gold standard” exists in this area. Still, the few studies that seem methodologically most robust would seem to indicate that an association between nursing home staffing levels and quality exists. However, the author concludes that studies in this area need to be further enhanced.Journal of Applied Gerontology 05/2008; 27(4):375-405. DOI:10.1177/0733464808321596 · 0.97 Impact Factor