This study examined the contribution of facility-level and area market-level attributes to variations in hospitalization rates among nursing home residents.
Three years (1991-1994) of state quarterly Medicaid case-mix reimbursement data from 527 nursing homes (NH) in Massachusetts were linked with Medicare Provider Analysis and Review hospital claims and nursing facility attribute data to produce a longitudinal, analytical file containing 72,319 person-quarter observations. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the influence of facility-level and market-level factors on hospital use, after controlling for individual-level resident attributes, including: NH diagnoses, resident-level quality of care indicators, and diagnostic cost grouping classification from previous hospital stays.
Multivariate findings suggest that resident heterogeneity alone does not account for the wide variations in hospitalization rates across nursing homes. Instead, facility characteristics such as profit status, nurse staffing patterns, NH size, chain affiliation, and percentage of Medicaid and Medicare reimbursed days significantly influence NH residents' risk of hospitalization. Broader area market factors also appear to contribute to variations in hospitalization rates.
Variations in hospitalization rates may reflect underutilization, as well as overutilization. Continued efforts toward identifying medically necessary hospitalizations are needed.
"In addition, we examined two market characteristics. Market characteristics may also be associated with facility operations and quality of nursing home care (Carter & Porell, 2003; Harrington, 2005). We examined two characteristics. "
"Differences in acute care destinations and nursing home populations included in the studies may also affect the rates of inappropriate admissions. Several studies suggest that facility characteristics may be as important as residents’ clinical characteristics
[11,12]. In addition, regional differences in terms of financial incentives may also have an influence
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Residents of long-term care facilities have a high risk of acute care admission. Estimates of the frequency of inappropriate transfers vary substantially throughout the studies and various assessment tools have been used. The purpose of this study is to systematically review and describe the internationally existing assessment tools used for determining appropriateness of hospital admissions among long-term care residents.
Systematic review of the literature of two databases (PubMed and CINAHL®). The search covered seven languages and the period between January 2000 and December 2012. All quantitative studies were included if any assessment tool for appropriateness of hospital and/or emergency department admission of long-term care residents was used. Two pairs of independent researchers extracted the data.
Twenty-nine articles were included, covering study periods between 1991 and 2009. The proportion of admissions considered as inappropriate ranged from 2% to 77%. Throughout the studies, 16 different assessment tools were used; all were based on expert opinion to some extent; six also took into account published literature or interpretation of patient data. Variation between tools depended on the concepts studied, format and application, and aspects evaluated. Overall, the assessment tools covered six aspects: specific medical diagnoses (assessed by n = 8 tools), acuteness/severity of symptoms (n = 7), residents’ characteristics prior to admission (n = 6), residents’ or families’ wishes (n = 3), existence of a care plan (n = 1), and availability or requirement of resources (n = 10). Most tools judged appropriateness based on one fulfilled item; five tools judged appropriateness based on a balance of aspects. Five tools covered only one of these aspects and only six considered four or more aspects. Little information was available on the psychometric properties of the tools.
Most assessment tools are not comprehensive and do not take into account residents’ individual aspects, such as characteristics of residents prior to admission and wishes of residents or families. The generalizability of the existing tools is unknown. Further research is needed to develop a tool that is evidence-based, comprehensive and generalizable to different regions or countries in order to assess the appropriateness of hospital admissions among long-term care residents.
"We examined several widely used MDS resident variables to adjust for potential differences in sociodemographic characteristics and disease severity
[20,34-39]. Selected characteristics included sociodemographic variables (age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status), previously diagnosed medical illnesses or conditions (stroke, any stage 2+ pressure ulcer), level of ADL impairment, and certain treatments/preferences (Do Not Resuscitate order, any use of a urinary catheter). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous studies indicate that the use of feeding tubes (FT) in persons with advanced cognitive impairment (CI) does not improve clinical outcomes or survival, and results in higher rates of hospitalization and emergency department (ED) visits. It is not clear, however, whether such risk varies by resident level of CI and whether these ED visits and hospitalizations are potentially preventable. The objective of this study was to determine the rates of ED visits, hospitalizations and potentially preventable ambulatory care sensitive (ACS) ED visits and ACS hospitalizations for long-stay NH residents with FTs at differing levels of CI.
We linked Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services inpatient & outpatient administrative claims and beneficiary eligibility data with Minimum Data Set (MDS) resident assessment data for nursing home residents with feeding tubes in a 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries residing in US nursing facilities in 2006 (n = 3479). Severity of CI was measured using the Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) and categorized into 4 groups: None/Mild (CPS = 0-1, MMSE = 22-25), Moderate (CPS = 2-3, MMSE = 15-19), Severe (CPS = 4-5, MMSE = 5-7) and Very Severe (CPS = 6, MMSE = 0-4). ED visits, hospitalizations, ACS ED visits and ACS hospitalizations were ascertained from inpatient and outpatient administrative claims. We estimated the risk ratio of each outcome by CI level using over-dispersed Poisson models accounting for potential confounding factors.
Twenty-nine percent of our cohort was considered "comatose" and "without any discernible consciousness," suggesting that over 20,000 NH residents in the US with feeding tubes are non-interactive. Approximately 25% of NH residents with FTs required an ED visit or hospitalization, with 44% of hospitalizations and 24% of ED visits being potentially preventable or for an ACS condition. Severity of CI had a significant effect on rates of ACS ED visits, but little effect on ACS hospitalizations.
ED visits and hospitalizations are common in cognitively impaired tube-fed nursing home residents and a substantial proportion of ED visits and hospitalizations are potentially preventable due to ACS conditions.
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