Country response to HIV/AIDS: national health accounts on HIV/AIDS in Brazil, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico and Uruguay.
ABSTRACT National expenditures on HIV/AIDS were estimated as summary indicators to assess the country's response to HIV/AIDS. The methodology is based on a matrix system describing the level and flow of health expenditures on HIV/AIDS: an adaptation of the National Health Accounts methods. The expenditures were classified by source (public, private, international), by the use of funds (prevention, care), by object, and by type of provider institution. The results are reported in US dollars using the official exchange rate for the year of estimation. For international comparisons monetary units were adjusted by the purchasing power parity (US dollars PPP). National HIV/AIDS total expenditures were: Guatemala US dollars PPP29.5 million, Uruguay US dollars PPP 32.5 million, Mexico US dollars PPP 257 million, and Brazil US dollars PPP 587.4 million during 1998, and Honduras US dollars PPP 33.9 million for 1999. The total HIV/AIDS expenditures per capita for 1998 were: Brazil US dollars 2.69, Mexico US dollars 1.25, Guatemala US dollars 1.08, Uruguay US dollars 6.63, and Honduras US dollars 3.6 for 1999. The 1998 distribution of the total HIV/AIDS expenditures in prevention and care were, respectively, Brazil 10 and 80%, Guatemala 15 and 70%, Mexico 29 and 66%, Uruguay 36 and 51%, and Honduras 28 and 65% for 1999. The share of total expenditures on antiretroviral drugs ranged from 52% in Guatemala to 75% in Brazil, even when the estimated coverage of antiretroviral therapy was close to 10% in Guatemala and universal in Brazil. The estimated flow from international sources per capita in 1998 was Uruguay US dollars 0.03, Brazil US dollars 0.24, Guatemala US dollars 0.11, Mexico US dollars 0.01, and Honduras US dollars 1.04 in 1999. The data allow international comparisons and provide critical information to improve equity and efficiency in the allocation of scarce resources. The National HIV/AIDS Accounts also constitute a powerful tool to describe the country's response to HIV/AIDS.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Carlos Avila, Jun 02, 2015
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ABSTRACT: To investigate why Southern sub-Saharan Africa is more severely impacted by HIV and AIDS than other parts of sub-Saharan Africa, I conducted a review of the literature that assessed viral, host and transmission (societal) factors. This narrative review evaluates: 1) viral factors, in particular the aggregation of subtype-C HIV infections in Southern sub-Saharan Africa; 2) host factors, including unique behaviour patterns, concomitant high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases, circumcision patterns, average age at first marriage and immunogenetic determinants; and, 3) transmission and societal factors, including levels of poverty, degrees of literacy, migrations of people, extent of political corruption, and the usage of contaminated injecting needles in community settings. HIV prevalence data and published indices on wealth, fertility, and governmental corruption were correlated using statistical software. The high prevalence of HIV in Southern sub-Saharan Africa is not explained by the unusual prevalence of subtype-C HIV infection. Many host factors contribute to HIV prevalence, including frequency of genital ulcerating sexually transmitted infections, absence of circumcision (compiled odds ratios suggest a protective effect of between 40% and 60% from circumcision), and immunogenetic loci, but no factor alone explains the high prevalence of HIV in the region. Among transmission and societal factors, the wealthiest, most literate and most educated, but also the most income-disparate, nations of sub-Saharan Africa show the highest HIV prevalence. HIV prevalence is also highest within societies experiencing significant migration and conflict as well as in those with government systems experiencing a high degree of corruption. The interactions between poverty and HIV transmission are complex. Epidemiologic studies currently do not suggest a strong role for the community usage of contaminated injecting needles. Areas meriting additional study include clade type, host immunogenetic determinants, the complex interrelationship of HIV with poverty, and the community usage of contaminated injecting needles.African Journal of AIDS Research 11/2009; November 2007(3-Vol. 6):271-286. DOI:10.2989/16085900709490423 · 0.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Provincial Health Accounts (PHA) as a subset of National Health Accounts (NHA) present financial information for health sectors. It leads to a logical decision making for policy-makers in order to achieve health system goals, especially Fair Financial Contribution (FFC). This study aimed to examine Health Accounts in Kerman Province. Methods: The present analytical study was carried out retrospectively between 2008 and 2011. The research population consisted of urban and rural households as well as providers and financial agents in health sectors of Kerman Province. The purposeful sampling included 16 provincial organizations. To complete data, the report on Kerman household expenditure was taken as a data source from the Governor-General's office. In order to classify the data, the International Classification for Health Accounts (ICHA) method was used, in which data set was adjusted for the province. Results: During the study, the governmental and non-governmental fund shares of the health sector in Kerman were 27.22% and 72.78% respectively. The main portion of financial sources (59.41) was related to private household funds, of which the Out-of-Pocket (OOP) payment mounted to 92.35%. Overall, 54.86% of all financial sources were covered by OOP. The greatest portion of expenditure of Total Healthcare Expenditures (THEs) (65.19%) was related to curative services. Conclusion: The major portion of healthcare expenditures was related to the OOP payment which is compatible with the national average rate in Iran. However, health expenditure per capita, was two and a half times higher than the national average. By emphasizing on Social Determinant of Health (SDH) approach in the Iranian health system, the portion of OOP payment and curative expenditure are expected to be controlled in the medium term. It is suggested that PHA should be examined annually in a more comprehensive manner to monitor initiatives and reforms in healthcare sector.International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPM) 02/2014; 2(2):69-74. DOI:10.15171/ijhpm.2014.17
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the net effect of introducing highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in Mexico on total annual per-patient costs for HIV/AIDS care, taking into account potential savings from treatment of opportunistic infections and hospitalizations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multi-center, retrospective patient chart review and collection of unit cost data were performed to describe the utilization of services and estimate costs of care for 1003 adult HIV+ patients in the public sector. RESULTS: HAART is not cost-saving and the average annual cost per patient increases after initiation of HAART due to antiretrovirals, accounting for 90% of total costs. Hospitalizations do decrease post-HAART, but not enough to offset the increased cost. CONCLUSIONS: Scaling up access to HAART is feasible in middle income settings. Since antiretrovirals are so costly, optimizing efficiency in procurement and prescribing is paramount. The observed adherence was low, suggesting that a proportion of these high drug costs translated into limited health benefits.Salud publica de Mexico 12/2007; 50:S437-S444. · 0.94 Impact Factor