A transmembrane segment mimic derived from Escherichia coli diacylglycerol kinase inhibits protein activity.
ABSTRACT The function of membrane proteins is inextricably linked to the proper packing and assembly of their independently helical transmembrane (TM) segments. Here we examined whether an externally added TM peptide analogue could specifically inhibit the function of the membrane protein from which it is derived by competing for native TM helix packing sites, thereby producing a non-functional peptide-protein complex. This hypothesis was tested using Lys-tagged peptides synthesized with sequences corresponding to the three TM segments of the homotrimeric Escherichia coli diacylglycerol kinase (DGK). The peptide corresponding to wild-type DGK TM-2 inhibited the protein's enzymatic activity in a dose-dependent manner through formation of an inactive pseudo-complex, whereas peptides derived from TM-1 and TM-3 were benign toward DGK structure/function. Also, substitution of a conserved residue (Glu-69) within the TM-2 peptide abolished these effects, demonstrating the strict sequence requirements for TM-2-mediated association. This strategy, coupled with the practical advantages of the water solubility of Lys-tagged TM peptides, may constitute an attractive approach for the design of therapeutic membrane protein modulators even in the absence of a high resolution structure.
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ABSTRACT: Drug-resistant bacteria use several families of membrane-embedded transporters to remove antibiotics from the cell. One such family is the small multidrug resistance proteins (SMRs) that, because of their relatively small size (ca. 110 residues with four transmembrane [TM] helices), must form (at least) dimers to efflux drugs. Here, we use a Lys-tagged synthetic peptide with exactly the same sequence as TM4 of the full-length SMR Hsmr from Halobacterium salinarum [TM4 sequence: AcA(Sar)(3)-VAGVVGLALIVAGVVVLNVAS-KKK (Sar = N-methylglycine)] to compete with and disrupt the native TM4-TM4 interactions believed to constitute the locus of Hsmr dimerization. Using a cellular efflux assay of the fluorescent SMR substrate ethidium bromide, we determined that bacterial cells containing Hsmr are able to remove cellular ethidium via first-order exponential decay with a rate constant (k) of 10.1 × 10(-3) ± 0.7 × 10(-3) s(-1). Upon treatment of the cells with the TM4 peptide, we observed a saturable ~60% decrease in the efflux rate constant to 3.7 × 10(-3) ± 0.2 × 10(-3) s(-1). In corresponding experiments with control peptides, including scrambled sequences and a sequence with d-chirality, a decrease in ethidium efflux either was not observed or was marginal, likely from nonspecific effects. The designed peptides did not evoke bacterial lysis, indicating that they act via the α-helicity and membrane insertion propensities of the native TM4 helix. Our overall results suggest that this approach could conceivably be used to design hydrophobic peptides for disruption of key TM-TM interactions of membrane proteins and represent a valuable route to the discovery of new therapeutics.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 04/2012; 56(7):3911-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Highly hydrophobic integral membrane proteins (IMPs)are typically purified in excess detergent media, often resulting in rapid inactivation and denaturation of the protein. One promising approach to solve this problem is to couple hydrophilic polymers, such as monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) to IMPs under mild conditions in place of detergents. However, the broad application of this approach is hampered by poor reaction efficiencies, low tolerance of detergent stabilized membrane proteins to reaction conditions, and a lack of proper site-specific reversible approaches. Here, we have developed a straightforward, efficient, and mild approach to site-specific noncovalent binding of long-chain polymers to recombinant IMPs. This method uses the hexa-histidine tag (His-Tag) often used for purification of recombinant proteins as an attachment site for mPEGs. Solubility studies performed using five different IMPs confirmed that all tested mPEG-bound IMPs were completely soluble and stable in detergent free aqueous buffer compared to their precipitated native proteins under the identical circumstances. Activity assays and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy confirmed the structural integrity of modified IMPs.Bioconjugate Chemistry 08/2011; 22(8):1513-8. · 4.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) and undecaprenol kinase (UDPK) are the lone members of a family of multispan membrane enzymes that are very small, lack relationships to any other family of proteins-including water soluble kinases-and exhibit an unusual structure and active site architecture. Escherichia coli DAGK plays an important role in recycling diacylglycerol produced as a by-product of biosynthesis of molecules located in the periplasmic space. UDPK seems to play an analogous role in gram-positive bacteria, where its importance is evident because UDPK is essential for biofilm formation by the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans. DAGK has also long served as a model system for studies of membrane protein biocatalysis, folding, stability, and structure. This review explores our current understanding of the microbial physiology, enzymology, structural biology, and folding of the prokaryotic DAGK family, which is based on over 40 years of studies.Annual Review of Biophysics 10/2011; 41:81-101. · 12.63 Impact Factor