Caspase-mediated cleavage of the feline calicivirus capsid protein.
ABSTRACT Feline calicivirus (FCV) is responsible for an acute upper respiratory tract disease in cats. The FCV capsid protein is synthesized as a precursor (76 kDa) that is post-translationally processed into the mature 62 kDa capsid protein by removal of the N-terminal 124 amino acids. Our previous studies have also detected a 40 kDa protein, related to the FCV capsid protein, produced during infection. Here we demonstrate that cleavage of the FCV capsid protein, during infection of cells in culture, was prevented by caspase inhibitors. In addition, caspase-2, -3 and -7 were activated during FCV infection, as shown by pro-form processing, an increase in N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-7-amido-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin cleavage activity and in situ poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Caspase activation coincided with the induction of apoptosis and capsid cleavage to the 40 kDa fragment. An in vitro cleavage assay, using recombinant human caspases and in vitro-derived FCV capsid protein, revealed that caspase-2, and to a lesser extent caspase-6, cleaved the capsid protein to generate a 40 kDa fragment. Taken together, these results suggest that FCV triggers apoptosis within infected cells and that caspase-induced capsid cleavage occurs concomitantly with apoptosis. The possible role of capsid cleavage in the pathogenesis of FCV infection is discussed.
Article: Cleavage map and proteolytic processing of the murine norovirus nonstructural polyprotein in infected cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Murine norovirus (MNV) is presently the only member of the genus Norovirus in the Caliciviridae that can be propagated in cell culture. The goal of this study was to elucidate the proteolytic processing strategy of MNV during an authentic replication cycle in cells. A proteolytic cleavage map of the ORF1 polyprotein was generated, and the virus-encoded 3C-like (3CL) proteinase (Pro) mediated cleavage at five dipeptide cleavage sites, 341E/G342, Q705/N706, 870E/G871, 994E/A995, and 1177Q/G1178, that defined the borders of six proteins with the gene order p38.3 (Nterm)-p39.6 (NTPase)-p18.6-p14.3 (VPg)-p19.2 (Pro)-p57.5 (Pol). Bacterially expressed MNV 3CL Pro was sufficient to mediate trans cleavage of the ORF1 polyprotein containing the mutagenized Pro sequence into products identical to those observed during cotranslational processing of the authentic ORF1 polyprotein in vitro and to those observed in MNV-infected cells. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis of proteins produced in virus-infected cells demonstrated efficient cleavage of the proteinase-polymerase precursor. Evidence for additional processing of the Nterm protein in MNV-infected cells by caspase 3 was obtained, and Nterm sequences 118DRPD121 and 128DAMD131 were mapped as caspase 3 cleavage sites by site-directed mutagenesis. The availability of the MNV nonstructural polyprotein cleavage map in concert with a permissive cell culture system should facilitate studies of norovirus replication.Journal of Virology 09/2006; 80(16):7816-31. · 5.40 Impact Factor
Article: Polypyrimidine tract binding protein functions as a negative regulator of feline calicivirus translation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Positive strand RNA viruses rely heavily on host cell RNA binding proteins for various aspects of their life cycle. Such proteins interact with sequences usually present at the 5' or 3' extremities of the viral RNA genome, to regulate viral translation and/or replication. We have previously reported that the well characterized host RNA binding protein polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) interacts with the 5'end of the feline calicivirus (FCV) genomic and subgenomic RNAs, playing a role in the FCV life cycle. We have demonstrated that PTB interacts with at least two binding sites within the 5'end of the FCV genome. In vitro translation indicated that PTB may function as a negative regulator of FCV translation and this was subsequently confirmed as the translation of the viral subgenomic RNA in PTB siRNA treated cells was stimulated under conditions in which RNA replication could not occur. We also observed that PTB redistributes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during FCV infection, partially localizing to viral replication complexes, suggesting that PTB binding may be involved in the switch from translation to replication. Reverse genetics studies demonstrated that synonymous mutations in the PTB binding sites result in a cell-type specific defect in FCV replication. Our data indicates that PTB may function to negatively regulate FCV translation initiation. To reconcile this with efficient virus replication in cells, we propose a putative model for the function of PTB in the FCV life cycle. It is possible that during the early stages of infection, viral RNA is translated in the absence of PTB, however, as the levels of viral proteins increase, the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of PTB is altered, increasing the cytoplasmic levels of PTB, inhibiting viral translation. Whether PTB acts directly to repress translation initiation or via the recruitment of other factors remains to be determined but this may contribute to the stimulation of viral RNA replication via clearance of ribosomes from viral RNA.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(3):e9562. · 4.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Viral infection constitutes an unwanted intrusion that needs to be eradicated by host cells. On one hand, one of the first protective barriers set up to prevent viral replication, spread or persistence involves the induction of apoptotic cell death that aims to limit the availability of the cellular components for viral amplification. On the other hand, while they completely depend on the host molecular machinery, viruses also need to evade the cellular responses that are meant to destroy them. The existence of numerous antiapoptotic products within the viral kingdom proves that apoptosis constitutes a major threat that should better be bypassed. Among the different strategies developed to deal with apoptosis, one is based on what viruses do best: backfiring the cell on itself. Several unrelated viruses have been described to take advantage of apoptosis induction by expressing proteins targeted by caspases, the key effectors of apoptotic cell death. Caspase cleavage of these proteins results in various consequences, from logical apoptosis inhibition to more surprising enhancement or attenuation of viral replication. The present review aims at discussing the characterization and relevance of this post-translational modification that adds a new complexity in the already intricate host-apoptosis-virus triangle.Cell Death & Disease 01/2012; 3:e277. · 5.33 Impact Factor