Article

The Rho/ROCK pathway mediates neurite growth-inhibitory activity associated with the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of the CNS glial scar

Migragen AG, Spemannstrasse 34, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.73). 04/2003; 22(3):319-30. DOI: 10.1016/S1044-7431(02)00035-0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Axons fail to regenerate in the central nervous system after injury. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPG) expressed in the scar significantly contribute to the nonpermissive properties of the central nervous system environment. To examine the inhibitory activity of a CSPG mixture on retina ganglion cell (RGC) axon growth, we employed both a stripe assay and a nerve fiber outgrowth assay. We show that the inhibition exerted by CSPGs in vitro can be blocked by application of either C3 transferase, a specific inhibitor of the Rho GTPase, or Y27632, a specific inhibitor of the Rho kinase. These results demonstrate that CSPG-associated inhibition of neurite outgrowth is mediated by the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway. Consistent with these results, we found that retina ganglion cell axon growth on glial scar tissue was enhanced in the presence of C3 transferase and Y27632, respectively. In addition, we show that the recently identified inhibitory CSPG Te38 is upregulated in the lesioned spinal cord.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
73 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rho kinase (ROCK) is a serine/threonine kinase and a downstream target of the small GTPase Rho. The RhoA/ROCK pathway is associated with various neuronal functions such as migration, dendrite development, and axonal extension. Evidence from animal studies reveals that RhoA/ROCK signaling is involved in various central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including optic nerve and spinal cord injuries, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. Given that RhoA/ROCK plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of CNS diseases, the development of therapeutic agents targeting this pathway is expected to contribute to the treatment of CNS diseases. The RhoA/ROCK pathway mediates the effects of myelin-associated axon growth inhibitors-Nogo, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), and repulsive guidance molecule (RGM). Blocking RhoA/ROCK signaling can reverse the inhibitory effects of these molecules on axon outgrowth, and promotes axonal sprouting and functional recovery in animal models of CNS injury. To date, several RhoA/ROCK inhibitors have been under development or in clinical trials as therapeutic agents for neurological disorders. In this review, we focus on the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway in neurological disorders. We also discuss the potential therapeutic approaches of RhoA/ROCK inhibitors for various neurological disorders.
    Frontiers in Neuroscience 10/2014; 8:338. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2014.00338
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: After injury, peripheral neurons activate a pro-regenerative program that facilitates axon regeneration. While many regeneration-associated genes have been identified, the mechanism by which injury activates this program is less well understood. Furthermore, identifying pharmacological methods to induce a pro-regenerative state could lead to novel treatments to repair the injured nervous system. Therefore, we have developed an in vitro assay to study induction of the pro-regenerative state following injury or pharmacological treatment. First, we took advantage of the observation that dissociating and culturing sensory neurons from dorsal root ganglia activates a pro-regenerative program. We show that cultured neurons activate transcription factors and upregulate regeneration-associated genes common to the pro-regenerative program within the first hours after dissection. In a paradigm similar to pre-conditioning, neurons injured by dissociation display enhanced neurite outgrowth when replated as early as 12 h after being removed from the animal. Furthermore, stimulation of the pro-regenerative state improves growth on inhibitory substrates and requires DLK/JNK signaling, both hallmarks of the pro-regeneration response in vivo. Finally, we modified this assay in order to identify new methods to activate the pro-regenerative state in an effort to mimic the pre-conditioning effect. We report that after several days in culture, neurons down-regulate many molecular hallmarks of injury and no longer display enhanced neurite outgrowth after replating. Hence, these neurons are functionally naïve and are a useful tool for identifying methods to induce the pro-regenerative state. We show that both injury and pre-treatment with forskolin reactivate the pro-regenerative state in this paradigm. Hence, this assay is useful for identifying pharmacological agents that induce the pro-regenerative state in the absence of injury.
    Experimental Neurology 11/2014; 263. DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.10.012 · 4.62 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Following peripheral nerve injury, the distal nerve is primed for regenerating axons by generating a permissive environment replete with glial cells, cytokines, and neurotrophic factors to encourage axonal growth. However, increasing evidence demonstrates regenerating axons within peripheral nerves still encounter axonal-growth inhibitors, such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Given the generally poor clinical outcomes following peripheral nerve injury and reconstruction, the use of pharmacological therapies to augment axonal regeneration and overcome inhibitory signals has gained considerable interest. Joshi et al. (2014) have provided evidence for preferential or modality-specific (motor versus sensory) axonal growth and regeneration due to inhibitory signaling from Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) pathway regulation. By providing inhibition to the ROCK signaling pathway through Y-27632, they demonstrate that motor neurons regenerating their axons are impacted to a greater extent compared to sensory neurons. In light of this evidence, we briefly review the literature regarding modality-specific axonal regeneration to provide context to their findings. We also describe potential and novel barriers, such as senescent Schwann cells, which provide additional axonal-growth inhibitory factors for future consideration following peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Experimental Neurology 02/2015; 265. DOI:10.1016/j.expneurol.2015.02.001 · 4.62 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
0 Downloads
Available from
Mar 12, 2015